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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1000
Hernan Humana

KINE1000 mid-term exam review Power - ≈1% society has power & controls media, economy, gov…etc - oppressed groups feel one group is more oppressed than others (full of contradictions) - main cause for poor heath: poverty → limited access to medical care, doctors, physiotherapists….etc - stereotypes provide superficial & simple view of group through labels facilitated by media - Additive Analysis is based on: 1. Dichotomous thinking (everyone has a race/ gender/ class specific identity) 2. Ranking of dichotomous thinking (dominate and subordinate) - Dimensions of gender oppression: 1. Institutional – based on race, class, gender, schools, businesses, hospitals…etc – ideology: equality of opportunity; reality: race, class, gender place groups in distinct institutional niches w/ varying degrees of penalty and privilege o Slavery was an example of race, class, gender specific institution - Control over white women’s sexuality → pass on property to legitimate heirs of slave owner - Control over black women’s fertility → children born were also slaves → continues slavery - Class: devalued status of black women/men kept white women/men in elite positions - Racism ensured blacks serve whites and suffer economical exploitation o American social institutions most controlled by elite White men 2. Symbolic – feminine: passive, follower, emotional weak, physical – masculine – aggressive, leader, rational, strong, intellectual → “elite white men” o Aggressive Black and Hispanic seen as dangerous, not powerful → penalized when “masculine” o Women of colour/ working class/ poor white women → not seen as “ladies” 3. Individual – examine close friends, how nurture & appearance shaped you o Our choices become political acts → accept us as oppressors or challenge it/ “revolutionary change” - Antonio Gramsci → theory of Hegemony → power can make ppl without power to believe their interest are the same as ppl with power - Michel Foucault → power is never total; there will be some resistance; power is everywhere ||Readings|| Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection - Fail to see how our thoughts and actions uphold someone else’s subordination - Each group identifies it’s type of oppression and classifies all other types as being lesser importance - To get the piece of oppressor planted within each of us: o Must see types of oppression (race, class, gender) as distinctive yet interlocking; o Not adhering to comparing and ranking oppressions; examine difference experiences w/ relation to subordination and damnation - Reconceptualize race, class, gender as categories of analysis: o Acquire new theories of how race, class, gender have shaped experiences of all groups o See connections btwn categories of analysis and personal issues in our everyday lives o Abandon additive analyses of oppression - Issues to build types of coalitions essential for social change: 1. Differences in power and privilege structured w/ R/C/G/age/sexual orientation frame relationships o ∆power limit our ability to connect w/ other (e.g. black worker does not speak freely to white boss) o Voyeurism: subordinate groups being observed with curiosity as “other group”; less experience relating with ppl as different but equal 1 KINE1000 mid-term exam review o Voyeurs → privileged who do not relate to less powerful but interested seeing how “different” live 2. Coalitions around Common Causes: group of ppl w/ common enemy may not be partnership for change o need common visions & concrete projects to build coalition (alliance of combined action) o support each other’s efforts and realize we are all a part of a larger enterprise (social change) 3. Building empathy → for experiences of both indv and groups different from self o Building empathy from dominant side of privilege is difficult because they are not encouraged to o Subordinate groups are reluctant to abandon a basic mistrust of members of powerful groups b/c it has been traditionally essential for survival - Equality → sameness - Equity → fairness → indv and groups should receive equitable treatment and share benefits of society - Social Contructions: Phenomena/practices that we give form and meaning to as we live our lives with one another (change over time and place) o Must be studied in connection with and in relation to social, economic and political processes o Codification: setting rules - Power and Power Relations o Power has ability to influence ppl and mobilize resources o Power is not distributed equally or equitably o Power is continuously negotiated - Theory of Hegemony o Power is never static o Change to status quo can and does happen Physical Activity in the Community - Social Determinants of Heath → economic and social factors that influence the health of indv & comm. - Agency vs. Structure o Agency: act independently to make own self-determined free choices; success/failure depends on us o Structure: patterns/arrangements/institutions/contexts that influence or limit the choices and opportunities available; behavior is a product of structural factors - Priority of Canadian gov. → walk able communities that support physical activity - 7% of Canadian children/ youth (6 to 19) meet the WHO/ Canadian guidelines for recommended PA - 15% aged 15 to 70 meet recommended PA (avg Toronto adult spends 15.9hr in front of a screen) - 40% of Torontonians are physically active and the percentage is steadily decreasing Increased physical among: Decreased physical activity among: - comm. w/ high edu rates, incomes & two parent-families - comm. designed for automobile dependence = better health, less likely to smoke - limited access to parks, schoolyards, rec. spaces, time - comm. w/ mixed land use (stores in walking distance, - east and northeast areas of Toronto have lowest PA recreational facilities) e.g Toronto is most walkable - northeast Toronto have highest rates of diabetes - comm. w/ well-connected street networks -women/ girls (want more co-ed programs) - dense population - newcomers - in grades 9-12: student w/ parents born in Canada - diabled (56%) - in grades 7-12: students w/ parents working in prof. causes: lack of time, willpower, discomfort, social jobs isolation, intimidation, embarrassment 2 KINE1000 mid-term exam review - City↓costs → closure of swimming pools, hockey rinks, and public attractions - Use public investment in professional sport facilities (stadia, arenas, etc.) → e.g $30M public $ for skydome o Since WWII, public subsidization (financial support) of pro sport has increased dramatically o ↑ economy thru tourism, jobs, identity/ pride o reality: only small group of business elites benefit; not in public interest; net economy is negeative ||Reading|| Get Active Toronto - Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease/ infirmity - Importance of being active: longer lives, healthy workers = ↑ economy, fewer inactive-related illness = health service operates smoother, enjoy shared spaces = ↑ social institution (neighborhood) - Physical Activity Framework: o Influences: family, peers, culture, comm, env, policy, finances, time o Indv/ societal benefits: economic, environmental, social inclusion o Indv characteristics: perception of PA, disability, ethnicity, socio-economical status, gender, age o Physical activity levels: activity leisure, active transportation, organized PA, screen time Social Class and Social Determinants of Health - Social class: categories of ppl whose position in society based on income, wealth, social connections, edu, occupation o Elephant in the room: tendency to disregard class or assume we live in a classless society o Danger in middle class assumptions: risk not seeing/ downplaying their power/ privilege or experience/ obstacles. - Socio-economic status/ class is embodied → walk, talk, dance, eat, hobbies, lifestyle choices o Habitus: disposition, orientation, preference, values; structure(ing) how we act/ think o Comprised of forms of capital  Economical: command over resources  Social: resources based on networks, relationships, group members  Cultural: knowledge, skill, experience  Symbolic: resources connected to prestige, recognition, honor, - Relation to sport: ↑e.c = ↑sport/PA opportunities; ↑s.c = network to ↑access to PA/sport or ↑social network thru sport/ PA; ↑c.c = ↑comfort in sport/PA o Upper class: represented by “ethic of disinterest”; Middle class: “ethic of development”, delayed gratification; Lower class: “instrumental ethic”, body is tool to some end - SES/ Class is corporeal (tangible, material) → clothes, hair, shoes - Social stratification determined by: contribution to economical production, command over resources, lifestyle - Income and Social Status: strongest DOH since ↑income = ↑health status - ↑SES = greater sense of control in life; ↓SES = die early, suffer chronic health problems, ↓self-esteem, ↑depression - Canadian Medial Association (CMA) National report card: o Income is proportional to health (up to $5000 USD GDP/capita; no relationship after $5K) o Ppl in lower income categories delayed/ stop buying prescription drugs, ↑tobacco use, 1/5 Canadians delayed/ cancelled dentist appointments - Some nations are healthier than others due to a more equitable distribution of wealth amongst the population - Income inequity: ↑income and ↓absolute poverty but ↑gap btwn rich and poor o Canada has 4 largest income gap among 17 studied counties o Low-income and middle class group is shrinking due to ↑lung cancer, gonorrhea rate, ↓life expectancy o ↑poverty among elderly (women) by 70% o consequence of class gap: difference in stress, less investment in public infrastructure, exposure to +/- ive life factors, social cohesion and trust, adoption of health –comprising behavior o ↑gap because there is no neo-liberal political shift - Income in Canada: o +40% of two-income families since 1970s
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