Kine 1000 reading notes for Mid-term Exam
Towards a New Vision- Patricia Hill Collins
- Additive analysis- dichotomous (either/or) differences must be ranked.
- One group having salience (importance) over another does not decrease importance of
assuming that race, gender, and class as categories of analysis structure all relationships.
- There are 3 dimensions of oppression:
Domination- subordinate relationship in schools, hospitals, businesses, and
Equality of opportunities. Antebellum plantation- variety of American social
Plantation- system of institutional oppression- built into system e.g., schools,
government, prison, family.
Slavery as being a patriarchal institution.
Stereotypes and controlling images of different classes, race, and groups.
Reflects dichotomous thinking
Some qualities acceptable to whites, but not blacks.
Homogeneity of one class, race, and gender becomes barriers for connection.
“While there is a piece of oppression in each of us, we have a choice of
accepting that piece or challenging it as part of the true focus of revolutionary
How can we transcend the barriers created by our experiences with race, class, and gender oppression
in order to build the types of coalitions essential for social change? We must transcend these barriers by
moving towards race, class, and gender as categories of connection, by building relationships, and
coalitions in order to bring in social change, but the issues involved in doing this are:
- Differences in power and privilege
o By applying categories of race to objective conditions, we are ranking oppressions and
missing the real suffering that is the real issue.
o Voyeurism- cannot relate, but takes interest in the differences (trying to learn about
other cultures, without being part of the culture itself).
The privileged perform this
o Relations of domination and subordinate, makes us have less experience relating with
people of difference rather than equal.
o Unprivileged never spoke out to the privilege about their inequality.
- Coalitions around common causes
o Partnership in misery does not equal partnership in change.
o Coalitions where those who share commitment on common issues, but with different
personal biographies, has the best strategies for change.
Diversity= partial views.
- Building empathy o In order for whites and privileged to develop empathy for those of colour, they must see
how their white skin have privileged them and shaped their personal biographies.
o Privileged and non-privileged find it hard to empathize with each other, because of
Barbie girls versus Sea Monsters- Messner
The performance of gender:
- Children performs gender in ways that makes them two separates.
- Parents do not see children’s performance of gender as social constructions of gender, but
rather natural internal differences between sexes.
- Performance of gender is never a simple voluntary act.
The structure of gender:
- “Believing is seeing”- we selectively see aspects of social reality that tells us a truth that we want
to believe, such as beliefs in categorical sex difference.
- Difficult to see the reality of sex similarity in everyday life.
Divisions of labor and power:
- It is people’s choice to volunteer for certain positions.
- Division of labor comes from choices and preferences.
- No opportunities for cross-sex interactions in sports.
- Adults feel the need for sex segregation in sports.
- More women team managers and more men head coaches.
The culture of gender:
- Sweet names: feminine meanings.
- Neutral names: carry no obvious gendered meaning.
- Paradoxical- feminine vulnerability and power.
- Power names: unambiguous strength, aggression and power.
- When children gets older, the power names dominate team names,
Barbie narrative versus warrior narratives:
- Barbie- recognized as ideal womanhood.
- Boys feel threatened of celebratory girl power.
- Coaches of the soccer games would sarcastically threaten the boys with the girls’ teams in order
to make them better.
- Boys and girls are not different, it’s just under conditions do they constitute themselves as
different/ oppositional groups.
- Interactionist- how people perform gender and actively create boundaries that= categorical
differences. - Structural perspectives- emphasize ways in which gender is built into institutions through
hierarchical sexual divisions and labor, and what conditions disrupt this inequality.
- Cultural perspectives- how popular symbols produce concepts of sexual differences and
gendered relations of power.
Social class and social determinants of health- Nickel-and- dimed on (not) getting by in America-
- Barbara Ehrenreich- a middle class journalist went on a task to experience “poverty” and see
how welfare reforms induced by government policies affected those low wage workers.
o She worked as a low wage worker- took on server positions at restaurants.
o Was bossed around.
o She took on two jobs to pay the rent.
o Middle class, white journalist.
o Went undercover into the low wage workforce.
o Spent one month.
o Welfare reform (Gov. Making cuts to welfare in U.S).
o $ From government (financial assistant).
o “Humanitarian” rationale- government believes it will forces people to get a job (be
empowered instead of being lazy).
o Barbara miss most- competence (doing her job well, privilege).
o Middle – class solipsism- self obsession, pre-occupation, only thought about middle-
class life, never thought about lower working classes.
- Poverty as social determinants of health:
o Decreases healthy food
o No transportation
o Increased stress
o No time
o Less access to healthcare
- Severs- usually white.
- Housekeepers- usually people of colour/ immigrants.
- Low-wage workforce- like concentration camp (constant fear) = no courage.
- Left with $22 in her pocket.
Welfare reforms hurt the economy:
- It increases the amount of people going into the low wage workforce.
- Wages began to decrease because of too many workers.
- Low wage workforce- worse than welfare.
Uplifting- caring, friendship
Space, place, and health: food deserts- Kirkpatrick and Tarasuk
- Observing food programs and discount supermarkets in high poverty neighbourhoods. - Most struggle with food insecurity, because of financial constraints.
- 2 factors influence food insecurity:
o Local area of food environment and neighbourhood social capital (trust in people in your
- Food deserts- areas with poor access to healthy and affordable food.
o Helped through community kitchen, community gardens, and food banks.
- Surveyed both “working poor” and welfare recipients.
- Measured quality/quantity of food consumed by family members.
- Transportation cost for grocery trips and distance of grocery stores in the area.
- Observed neighbourhood level of food insecurity.
- Low odds of food insecurity in household with higher income and head of family/partner is a
recent immigrant to Canada.
- Families with low income have higher odds of severe food insecurities.
- Food access not a major problem, but income, reliance on welfare, and immigrant status has
high effect on household insecurity.
- Distance of discount supermarkets is not severe to food insecurity.
- No relationship between transportation cost for grocery and food insecurity.
- No relationship between distance of market and food insecurity.
- Low social capital= high food insecurity.
o But no severe.
- Food insecurity is related to inadequate financial resource to obtain adequate food.
- Immigrants draw on resources from country of origin to avoid low earnings.
- Families in survey had good food access.
- Need intervention at government level rather than community level.
o Increase welfare and increase minimum wage.
- No proof that community intervention works.
- Social capita= trust in people within your neighbourhood.
Food security= access to safe, culturally- accepted food, healthy food.
- 2/3 of low income families have food insecurity.
Food insecurity- related to income, income sources.
UN food envoy Olivier De Schutter says Canada starves many of its citizens- Catherine Porter
- Living on welfare, minimum wage is impossible to live on, people are desperate for money.
- Welfare rates are less than average single apartment rent. Why food insecurity?
- 1% vs. 99%
- Media-government, media hides the fact that citizens in Canada are going through tough times,
just as much as those in developing countries.
- We give people of other nations $, while people within our border are starving.
Sporting Spaces and Health Effects- the Pan American Games in Rio de Janeiro 2007: consequences of
a sport mega-event on a BRIC country- Curi, Knijnik, and Mascarenhas
- 15 Pan American Games organization demands huge investments on stadiums, security, and
- Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC) are the economic forces in the 21 century.
- Developing countries soughing out major events to promote their country on a global stage.
- What do these events mean for local population?
o Countries want to show they are capable to host and organize global events despite of
their low infrastructure and present themselves positively to key stakeholders.
o Wall dividing First World space and Third world City.
o Survey spectators inside stadium and consequences of event for local residents outside
Sport mega-events: Rio’s bid in 2007:
- Investment of large amount of money from public sources spent on sport-mega events.
- Will these games faring in mere benefits?
o Citizens are paying a lot of money out of pride to be in “world class city”.
o Negative environmental effects comes with these mega sport events:
Over-crowding, noise pollution, high crime rates, hidden cost with policing and
security, removal of undesirable, sanitation and property cost inflation around
- Rio de Janeiro a natural born sport city- beaches, mountains, and parks are beautiful leisure
- High major concerns like social inequalities, transport and sports facilities.
- Organizers shows area of excellence in media, while hiding the less developed impoverished
areas of the city from the media’s gaze.
Rio de Janeiro: Natural- born sports city?
- Rio strived after 1808 when they become the political capital of the Portuguese.
- Losing federal capital status in 1965, becomes a big problem.
o High social and criminal problems.
- Beauty and nature and main tourist city in Brazil remains the same.
- Global events sports leads to promotion of fictional representation of local identities and
- Globalization increases differences between the First and Third worlds. - Developing counties- rich and poor live side by side, unlike in U.S in Europe where there is a
huge gap and the rich and poor and distantly spaced out amongst location.
- Sport mega events exclude poor and use public money to build safe and beautiful areas.
Inside the stadiums: Spectators at the 2007 Games:
- National forces (protect against terrorist attacks), the walls and x-ray scanners turned the
competition areas intro a fortress.
- Border between normal Rio de Janeiro and event areas.
- High security outside, and private forces with less aggressive uniforms inside stadium.
- Inside stadium was new world with no police force or national forces- very friendly service
- Areas equipped with most modern sport facilities.
- Stadiums used as entertainment to attract outsiders.
- Only those who had enough money could pass through the walls.
- Those without money had to follow games on TV and no access to the walled service, but suffer
the repression of local military police.
- Stadiums are constructed based on reality of Europe or USA.
- Modern buses- pass through ‘Normal Street’ which remained of poor quality and full of holes.
Outside the stadiums: Neighbors of the Games:
- Light destruction of vegetation in Parque do Flamengo, which is government protected.
o Marina da Gloria- public place for all citizens (no bias) - people of Rio de Janeiro go there
for leisure activities.
- “Fortified enclaves” change the city’s landscape.
- Fortified enclaves creates spatial segregation and character of public space and of public
o Private properties that devalue what is public and open in the city.
- 17 apartment blocks (to be sold after games as middle-class housing) used money from public
funds that was designed to provide loans and unemployment insurance for workers.
- Many elite countries try to implement economic or political projects and interfere with public
space to take advantage through the use of sport mega events, and euphoria (joy) nationalism.
- Project replaces an activity in harmony with its surrounding, disturbs beautiful natural landscape
and adds to the already chaotic traffic in the area.
- Standardized architecture replaces known architecture with symbolic value of modernist Brazil.
- Healthy sport tradition- turns into commercial use.
- Beautiful open space- turns into closed space.
- Only elites will gain advantage of initiatives after euphoria (excitement) and nationalism.
- Removal of low income communities to build more new stadiums.
- Pan American games- more city marketing than solving daily problems in urban life.
- Vast sum of public money into elite athlete production system and building facilities for games
instead of expansion of public transportation. Conclusion:
Problems in Rio de Janeiro:
- Social inequality, dangerous transportation system, ecological pollution, lack of education,
healthcare and housing.
Pan American Games promised:
- New subway lines, investment in social projects, public security access stadium. But after
o Promise were not made, because organizers were too busy building fortified enclaves.
o Success of construction of islands are shown on TV, while the less developed parts of
the city are hidden from the media.
o Social complaint of Rio de Janeiro residents not visible.
o Events succeeded in showing an image of modern Rio de Janeiro, which was able to
organize a mega event without noticeable logistical failure or public violence.
o Majority of the population had no access to the spectacle.
o Wall creates social inequalities instead of equality.
o Fortified enclaves- built for middle class and upper class of Rio.
o Marginalized communities being displaced to make room for Olympic related
infrastructure and venues.
The ‘Wazzock’ Mitt Romney is wrong about the long Olympics, and this is unfortunate- Zirin
- Mitt Romney is a fool to assert that the United Kingdom is under-prepared for the 2012 Olympic
Media and Representation- Sport and representation
- Waneek Horn- Miller a water polo star appeared naked on the cover of a Canadian magazine.
o Esthasis on herndlamour instead of her athleticism.
o 1 a women, 2 an athlete.
- Women can only be a successful athlete if they are presented as male objects.
- Sport is a cultural representation that influences perception of society.
- Sport subtle lessons about how the world works and people absorb themselves in it.
- Image in media is not real.
- Captions are the context of the image- how we should read them.
- Denotation- simple, descriptive level.
- Connotative- complex, analytical analysis.
- Denotative- identify exactly what is seen.
- Connotative- understand what they see as a form of observation on some aspect of the world.
- D: women enduring pain while running.
- C: women should play sports like men.
- Problem is not with photograph, but with the context it appears in.
- Intertextuality- one image may refer to another, meaning altered by being read in context of
- - American soccer player Abby Wambach.
o Image of Wambach not responsible or signifying masculinity and American superiority,
but it does carry the meaning.
o If images are not examined carefully, they have the power to reproduce dominant
beliefs in society- stereotypes.
o Over determine- not seeing the real person, but overseeing their stereotype.
- The feather in Horn-Miller’s hair= aboriginal.
o Over-determination, because of fear that lies in racial inequality and racism.
- Racism is fear of what is different.
- Racism is fear that something will be taken away from dominant group.
- Those with resource are more afraid than those without them.
- Stereotypes come from dominant’s fear.
- Maple-leaf shows that Horn-miller is serving Canadian nation, but juxtapositions with her
o Aboriginals putting aside historical resistance to promote unity in games.
- Times magazine repeats Canadian history, which erases nation’s legacy of colonial violence, and
the guilt and fear that follows.
- Horn-miller- naked.
o Sexually objectified- women as passive sexual objects for active males to gaze at.
- Women in sports challenges traditional g