Chapter 9.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2011
Jennifer Kuk

Chapter 9 The Blood8 bodys weight is blood 55 litres in men 5 liters in women Consists of erythrocytes red blood cell leukocytes white blood cellswhole cells platelets thrombocyteswhich are cell fragmentsThese are known as blood cells In our body the blood is flowing continuously and in a balanced way When you put in a test tube and treat it to prevent clotting the heavier ones go to the bottom More than 99 of cells areenthrocytes RBC It is represented by hematocrit or packed cell volume It is about 42 in women and 45 in men Plasma is about 58 in women and 55 in men White blood cells make about 1it is the think cream coloured layer PlasmaLiquid that consists of 90 water Plasma WaterServes as a medium for material that are carried in the blood It is also able to hold heat and distribute it metabolically within tissuestemperature of blood can only undergo small changes Organicinorganics substances are dissolved in the plasma Inorganic1Most abundant are ions Na and Clsmall amounts of potassium calcium others Organic constituents plasma protein69Amino lipids vitamins wastes compose the rest of the plasma Plasma Proteins One group of plasma constituents that stay in the plasma where they perform valuable functions oPlasma proteins are dispersed as a colloid Due to tis large size they cannot exit through the narrow pores in the capillary walls to enter the interstitial fluid Plasma has a colloidal dispersion and absence in the interstitial fluidosmotic gradient between blood and interstitial fluid The osmotic pressure is the primary force that prevents loss of plasma from capillaries into the interstitial fluidmaintains plasma volumeoPartial responsibility for plasmas capacity to buffer changes in pH o3 groups of plasma protein Albumins Most abundant Contribute the most to the colloid osmotic pressure Bind many substances that are poorly soluble within the plasma for transport in the plasma Globulins Three types alpha beta gamma globulins Alpha and Beta bind poorly water soluble substances for transport highly specific to which passenger they will bind and carryAlpha and Beta mostly involved in blood clotting processAlpha inactive circulating proteinsactivated as required Angiotensisin activated to angiotensin plays a role in balacong slat within the body Gama Globulins immunoglobulinscuricual to the bodys defence mechanisms Fibrogen Key factor inblood clotting PP synthesized in liver GG made in lympcyets which are white blood cells Enthrocytes1mL of blood5 billion enthrocytes RBCs Structure and Function Main function transporting oxygen lesser extent CO2 and H ion in bloodFlat disc shaped indented in the middle on both sideslike a doughnut but a curve instead of hole8um in diameter 2um thickness at outer ends 1um thickness in center Shape helps in oBiconcave shape provides a larger surface area of oxygen across the membrane oThinness of the cell causes the cell to diffuse rapidly bw the exterior and innermost regions of the cell RBCs can also go through a 3um capillarybc they are pliant Another important feature is the haemoglobin they contain Haemoglobin in RBCs Two parts oGlobin protein made up for four highly folded polypeptide chains oHeme Group four iron contains nonprotein groups The four iorn atoms can combine reversibly with O2 one heameloglobin picks up foru 4 O2 molecules O is poorly soluble in plasma therefore 985 binds to heanloelin Hameoglobin is a pigment red w oxygen and blue w no oxygen Haemeoglobin can combine with
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