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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
Neil Smith

Circulatory System (pp.143-165) Includes the heart and blood vessels Functions: 1. Blood vessels transport nutrients and oxygen to cell a. Transport hormones that are released by endocrine glands 2. Removal of wastes generated by cells ex. CO 2 3. Thermoregulation by circulatory system vessels vaso- constrict/dilate 4. Contributes to homeostatis by regulating proper fluid balances between blood plasma and interstitial fluid Heart – located in the Mediastinum, an area of the thorax. Pericardial Sac – Double layered serous membrane that encases the heart - Parietal Pericardium – outer layer comprised of two layers: outer fibrous and inner Serous. - Visceral Pericardium (Epicardium) – inner serous membrane The space between the two layers is termed the Pericardial Cavity The actual heart muscle is termed Myocardium Epithelial layers line all the inside walls of the four chambers of the heart, blood vessels taking away(arteries)/bringing blood(veins) to the heart is termed Endocardium Heart Structure Venous blood from Superior/Inferior Vena Cava  R. Atrium  Flows down to R. Ventricle  Blood pumped to the pulmonary Arteries  Arterioles  Capillaries (Exchange of gases and interstitial fluid)  Venules  pulmonary veins  L. Atrium  flows into L. Ventricle  contraction will pump oxygenated blood out the Aorta. Right ventricle: Right Atrioventricular Valve [AV](tricuspid) Valve: 3 flaps attached from superior edges to opening between ventricle and atrium Chordae Tendineae: inferior edge attached by collagen fibres & anchored onto end of cone shaped Papillary Muscles. Myocardium contraction  R. Ventricle contract (↑ pressure)  cusps close to block R. Atrium [Papillary muscles stimulated to contract (tension on Chordae tendineae) prevent cusps from reverting back like an umbrella] Pulmonary Artery takes blood from R. Vent  lungs. - 3 Semi-lunar valve at the base of pulmonary artery attached around the circumference of opening. - Cusp pushed against wall of artery when blood flows up to lungs - Ventricle relax, ↓ press, blood flowing back down fill up cusp of valve sealing the ventricle. Left Atrium receives oxygenated blood back from the lungs via Pulmonary Veins flowing down through L. AV (Bicuspid) Valve- same construction with papillary muscle and chordae tendineae. - Contains only two valves - Blood flowing from the L. Ventricle will go through the Aorta Foramen ovale depression from fetal development, covered by thin epithelial sheet Fossa ovalis. Blood circulated from RL atrium. Oxygen received from placenta. Aorta - Located at the bases between aorta and L. Vent are Aortic Semilunar Valves. Same function as R (pulmonary valves): _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ When blood pressing on left ventricle  semilunar open pressing on wall of aorta covering the openings to R&L coronary arteries. - L. Ventricles contract blood flows back and fill pockets of valves that supply arterial blood to the heart. Land marking the Heart Sinoatrial Node (SA Node) – pacemaker for the heart, able to generate electrical signal 70x/min - Located at the junction of Superior Vena Cava and R. Atrium - Contains autonomic nerves (sympathetic and parasympathetic; via Vagus nerve) Can you guess the function? - Two atrium contract first forces blood into ventricle Atrioventricular Node (AV Node) – Located at the floor of the R. Atrium - Subsequent to L&R atria contracting AV Node picks up the signal Bundle of His - conducting pathway that takes electrical signal from heart down to interventricular septum to the apex of the heart Purkinje Fibres – Course through the myocardi
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