Abnormal Psych Exam Review.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
Kuk/ Riddell

Abnormal Psych Exam Review #2 Chapter 8: Disorders of Mood o Mood disorders tend to last for months or years and dominate their interactions with the world. It disrupts a personal normal functioning. o Unipolar depression (is the most common) people suffer exclusively from depression. Symptoms span emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, and physical. o Depressed people are at a greater risk for suicidal thinking and women are 2X more likey to experience severe unipolar depression. o Causes: - Biological view: low availability of norepinephrine and serotonin. - Psychodynamic view: people with a loss of some kind can revert back to an earlier stage of development and become depressed. - Behavioral view: when people experience a large reduction in positive rewards, they display less positive behaviour. - Cognitive view: people focus on negative thinking to produce depression. Beck; maladaptive attitudes, Seligman; learned helplessness. - Sociocultural view: depression is influenced by social and cultural factors/events. o Bipolar disorder has episodes of mania and depression. Mania is related to high norepinephrine and low serotonin. Bipolar disorder may be inherited. Chapter 9: Treatment of Mood Disorders o Psychodynamic therapists try to help depressed people aware and work through their losses. o Behavioral therapists reintroduce clients to events and activities they once enjoyed, as to reinforce positive behaviours. o Cognitive therapists identify and change people’s dysfunctional cognitions. o Cognitive-behavioural therapists reduce depression by combining cognitive and behavioral techniques. o Sociocultural therapists trace unipolar depression to interpersonal, social and cultural factors. o Interpersonal psychotherapy is used to help clients develop insight into social interpersonal problems. o Couples therapy is used with depression and dysfunctional relationships. o Biological treatments are antidepressants, ECT, and brain stimulations. o Antidepressants: MAO inhibitors, tricyclic’s, and 2 generation anti-Ds. - MAO blocks degradation of norepinephrine. - Tricyclic’s block reuptake of norepinephrine. - 2 gen. includes SSRI’s that selectively increase serotonin. o ECT: used when depression is very severe and no other treatment is successful. o Brain stimulation: deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and Transcranial magnetic stimulation. o Combinations of psychotherapy and drug therapy tend to be modestly more helpful than any one approach on its own. o Lithium and mood stabilizing drugs such as cartranazepine or valproate are effective in treating bipolar disorders (mostly manic episodes). o Mood stabilizers work by affecting the activity of second-messenger systems or by products/other chemicals in certain neurons throughout the brain. Chapter 7: Dissociative Disorder o Somatic systems are primarily caused by psychosocial factors or the symptoms trigger excessive anxiety or concern. o Factitious disorder: people feign or induce physical disorders; parents tend to do this to their children. o Conversion disorder: features bodily symptoms that affect voluntary motor and sensory functions, but the symptoms are inconsistent with normal medical diseases. o Somatic symptom disorder: people become excessively distressed, concerned, and anxious about bodily symptoms that they are experiencing and their lives are greatly and disproportionately disrupted by the symptoms. o Treatments for these disorders include insight therapy, exposure therapy, drug therapy (suggestion, reinforcement & confrontation). o Illness anxiety disorder: people are chronically anxious about and preoccupied with the notion that they have or are developing a serious medical illness despite symptoms. o Body dysmorphic disorder: people worry excessively about some imagined or minor defect in their appearance. o Treatment includes drug, behavioural, and cognitive approaches; originally developed for treating OCD. o Dissociative disorder: experience major changes in memory and identity that are not caused by physical factors; usually following a trauma. o Dissociative amnesia: people are unable to recall important personal information or past events in their lives.
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