Abnormal Psych Exam Review #2
Chapter 8: Disorders of Mood
o Mood disorders tend to last for months or years and dominate their interactions with the
world. It disrupts a personal normal functioning.
o Unipolar depression (is the most common) people suffer exclusively from depression.
Symptoms span emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, and physical.
o Depressed people are at a greater risk for suicidal thinking and women are 2X more likey
to experience severe unipolar depression.
- Biological view: low availability of norepinephrine and serotonin.
- Psychodynamic view: people with a loss of some kind can revert back to an
earlier stage of development and become depressed.
- Behavioral view: when people experience a large reduction in positive
rewards, they display less positive behaviour.
- Cognitive view: people focus on negative thinking to produce depression.
Beck; maladaptive attitudes, Seligman; learned helplessness.
- Sociocultural view: depression is influenced by social and cultural
o Bipolar disorder has episodes of mania and depression. Mania is related to high
norepinephrine and low serotonin. Bipolar disorder may be inherited.
Chapter 9: Treatment of Mood Disorders
o Psychodynamic therapists try to help depressed people aware and work through their
o Behavioral therapists reintroduce clients to events and activities they once enjoyed, as to
reinforce positive behaviours.
o Cognitive therapists identify and change people’s dysfunctional cognitions.
o Cognitive-behavioural therapists reduce depression by combining cognitive and
behavioral techniques. o Sociocultural therapists trace unipolar depression to interpersonal, social and cultural
o Interpersonal psychotherapy is used to help clients develop insight into social
o Couples therapy is used with depression and dysfunctional relationships.
o Biological treatments are antidepressants, ECT, and brain stimulations.
o Antidepressants: MAO inhibitors, tricyclic’s, and 2 generation anti-Ds.
- MAO blocks degradation of norepinephrine.
- Tricyclic’s block reuptake of norepinephrine.
- 2 gen. includes SSRI’s that selectively increase serotonin.
o ECT: used when depression is very severe and no other treatment is successful.
o Brain stimulation: deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and Transcranial
o Combinations of psychotherapy and drug therapy tend to be modestly more helpful than
any one approach on its own.
o Lithium and mood stabilizing drugs such as cartranazepine or valproate are effective in
treating bipolar disorders (mostly manic episodes).
o Mood stabilizers work by affecting the activity of second-messenger systems or by
products/other chemicals in certain neurons throughout the brain.
Chapter 7: Dissociative Disorder
o Somatic systems are primarily caused by psychosocial factors or the symptoms trigger
excessive anxiety or concern.
o Factitious disorder: people feign or induce physical disorders; parents tend to do this to
o Conversion disorder: features bodily symptoms that affect voluntary motor and sensory
functions, but the symptoms are inconsistent with normal medical diseases.
o Somatic symptom disorder: people become excessively distressed, concerned, and
anxious about bodily symptoms that they are experiencing and their lives are greatly and
disproportionately disrupted by the symptoms. o Treatments for these disorders include insight therapy, exposure therapy, drug therapy
(suggestion, reinforcement & confrontation).
o Illness anxiety disorder: people are chronically anxious about and preoccupied with the
notion that they have or are developing a serious medical illness despite symptoms.
o Body dysmorphic disorder: people worry excessively about some imagined or minor
defect in their appearance.
o Treatment includes drug, behavioural, and cognitive approaches; originally developed for
o Dissociative disorder: experience major changes in memory and identity that are not
caused by physical factors; usually following a trauma.
o Dissociative amnesia: people are unable to recall important personal information or past
events in their lives.