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Kine 2049 Test 1 Review.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2049
Merv Mosher

Kine 2049 Test 1 Review 4 Significant Points in Human History 4 Main Sections of a Journal Article  Language: allows verbal communication of ideas  Introduction and Literature Review  Writing: storage and saving of ideas  Method  Printing Press: mass distribution of knowledge  Results  Computers: search/analyze info and data much more rapidly  Discussion Topic 1: The Scientific Process Kinesiology: The study of human movement The Nature and Purpose of Research  Profession is only as strong as the research that it produces  A profession must produce new knowledge if it is to remain successful.  Astronomy vs Astrology  both are the study of stars but astrology produces legitimate research  The primary method by which a profession advances its knowledge base is the process of research  Research is about finding solutions to problems in a logical, orderly and systematic fashion Factual Information  Advertising claims vs facts  Parity claims  “nothing better”; simply means that everything is on par with that particular product  Testimonials  hair tonic; what’s wrong is that they don’t give you what happens to the average person (ab rocket example, people do a bunch of things on the side in addition to using the ab rocket)  Statistics  “30% less fat” ; 30% less fat than what? NNT – Number Needed to Treat NNH – Number Needed to Harm The Nature and Purpose of Research  Research is an organized attempt to obtain “knowledge” (facts/truth)  When possible – develop new knowledge (how/why does this occur?);  When appropriate – modify present knowledge  When necessary – correct old knowledge (ex: thought that the world was flat, people sail and never come back = fall off the edge of the earth)  Experiment is the “Gold Standard” for research (Gold standard = properly conducted experiment)  True experiment  participants are randomly assigned to either the treatment or the control group; done to eliminate alternate hypotheses  The “Gold Standard” allows us to evaluate all research designs and understand the limitations of other designs Controlled and Randomized Controlled but not Randomized Cohort or case control ** Controlled and Randomized = best way to conduct and experiment; as you move down, Multiple time series it becomes less reliable Expert Opinion  Humans depend on five sources to gain knowledge or “ways of knowing” 1. Custom and Tradition 2. Authority 3. Personal Experience  Includes superstitions and intuition 4. Reasoning  Deductive  general assumption to specific application. Based on logical conclusions  Inductive  specific cases to general application. Based on empirical methods 5. Scientific Inquiry  Problem identification  Statement of hypothesis  Collection and analysis of data  Accept or reject the hypothesis  Conclusions Questions are the Stimulus for Research  What are the relationships between diet, physical activity and health ?  Can caffeine enhance athletic performance ?  Does mental practice affect skill acquisition and performance ? The Scientific Method  Areas of study such as chemistry and biology are called Science because of the method of study, NOT the content  The techniques used to get at knowledge that is reliable, truthful, and factual are referred to as “Science” Assumptions of Science 1. There is a real and knowable universe 2. The universe operates according to understandable rules or laws 3. The laws of the universe are immutable (unchangeable) 4. The laws can be understood by careful observation, experimentation and research Characteristics of Research 1. Generally, carefully designed 2. Research is objective and logical (supposed to be unbiased) 3. Expertise is required (know the field and the techniques) 4. Development of generalizations (predict future occurrences) 5. Based upon empirical evidence 6. Gather new data or use existing for new purposes (primary sources) 7. Requires accurate observation and description (Quantitative measuring) 8. Careful recording (results published for others to examine) 9. Unhurried and patient activity (often failures) 10. Replication (confirm or raise questions; ** research needs to be replicated before scientists will believe it) 11. Requires courage 12. Reductive (the nature of complex things can always be reduced to or explained by simpler or more fundamental things) a. Acai berry example  good for you but too expensive to bring in, so scientists only isolate one specific chemical in the berry and create a pill. ** Missing the big picture; by reducing berry down to particular chemical, missing out on other components of
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