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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3000
Joseph Baker

1 April 2, 2012 PSYCHOLOGY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH FINAL EXAM Lecture 1: Introduction to Psychology of Health and Physical Activity  Methods of Knowing Damn Confident 1. Scientific Method 2. Systematic Observation 3. Case study 4. Shared public experience 5. Introspection (Examining your thoughts or feelings) 6. Intuition (immediate apprehension of knowledge in Don’t Know the absence of a conscious rational process)  Nonscientific methods of knowing 1. Tenacity: Clinging to beliefs such as superstitions 2. Intuition: Commonsense or self-evident truths 3. Authority: Accepting the authority’s truth 4. Rationalistic Method: Logic  Objectives of Science 1. Description – portraying an accurate picture of the phenomenon under study. 2. Explanation – determine why a phenomenon exists or what causes it. 3. Prediction – anticipation of an event prior to its occurrence. 4. Control – ability to manipulate the antecedent conditions that determine the occurrence of a given event.  Scientific Method 1. Developing the problem 2. Formulating the hypothesis 3. Gathering the data 4. Analyzing and interpreting results 1. Developing the Problem Includes clearly identifying independent and dependent variables. -Independent variable: the variable that is manipulated. -Dependent variable: the variable that is affected by the independent variable. 2 2. Formulating the Hypothesis Hypothesis: the expected result or prediction e.g. We expect the younger adolescent athletes will require more extrinsic motivation than older adolescent athletes. Hypothesis must be “testable”. 3. Gathering the Data Methods must maximize internal and external validity Internal validity: the extent to which results of an investigation can be attributed to the treatment utilized. External validity: the extent to which results can be generalized within the real world. 4. Analyzing and Interpreting Results Interpret results to: -support or refute hypothesis -compare with other research, theories or other sources of information Researchers must be cautious to avoid over-generalizing results  Non-experimental methods Not manipulating an independent variable Techniques: 1. Qualitative methods: e.g. interviews 2. Naturalistic observations 3. Participant observation  Methods of Study 1. Longitudinal design 2. Cross sectional design Longitudinal and Cross-sectional Designs Group A Group A Group A 1 yr 2 yr 3 yr Group B 2 yr Group C 3 yr 3 Cross sectional Designs Pros -Low administration -Quick -Can observe age differences Cons -Assume change (not observed) Longitudinal Designs Pros -Change can be observed across ages Cons -High administration -Drop out -repeated testing = training effects  Theories -Provide the framework for ideas and are the basis for their implementation. -Defined as a summary of known facts and assumptions that serves to organize information in a meaningful way. -Theories are not designed to answer all questions related to development, et each makes some contribution to our knowledge base. E.g. Freud  What is Sport and Exercise Psychology? Psychology Sport Psychology Exercise Psychology Health Psychology “Sport and exercise psychology: branch of sport and exercise science that involves the scientific study of human behaviour in sport and exercise and the practical application of the knowledge in sport and exercise settings.” 4 Lecture 2: Exercise and Psychological Health  Why is exercise healthy? Some physiological benefits: -Increased production of endorphins -Improved agility -Improved bone density -Improved strength and flexibility Psychosocial benefits include: -Feel less stressed and anxious -Better work performance -More positive self-concept Benefits of physical activity – Long term and short term  Broader views of PA Benefits Social benefits: -encourages family/community connectedness -improves social skills/networks -reduces isolation, loneliness -enhances self-esteem, confidence Physical and mental benefits: -improves quality of life -reduces risk of chronic diseases -manages weight -improves sleep -develops motor skills -improves concentration, enhances memory & learning Environmental benefits: -reduces traffic congestion -reduces air pollution -reduces greenhouse emissions -reduces noise pollution -creates safer places with people out and about Economic benefits: -creates employment -draws tourism -becomes a means of transport 5 -supports local businesses -reduces absenteeism -reduces crime -reduces health savings  How much PA is necessary? Basic requirements: -30 mins or more of moderate intensity PA performed on most days of the week. (ACSM guidelines) Health benefits are related to effort: -Additional benefits are associated with increased intensity or duration of the activity WHO Guidelines: -Suggests 30 min only useful to reduce risk of CVD, DM, cancer -Recommendation for maintenance of healthy body weight -1 hr moderate intensity on most days of the week -Particularly for people with sedentary occupations Canada’s Physical Activity Guide: -Recommends that to achieve health benefits, adults need to accumulate 30-60 mins of PA most days of the week, preferably every day. -There should be a mix of endurance activities, flexibility activities, and strength activities  The State of Active Living in Canada -Epidemiological data indicate that only 37% of Canadian adults participate in regular PA -63% of the population can be classified as sedentary Sedentary lifestyles –Similar in US 25% over 18 yrs old engaging in moderate PA at least 5 days /week 16.5% vigorous activity 45% insufficient activity 25% no leisure time PA  Are people aware of Benefits of PA? Inactive people agree with active people that PA can be used to: -control body weight -be more healthy -relieve tension -improve physical appearance -feel better -meet people 6 Yet they don’t exercise!  Importa
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