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Midterm #1 Review In depth review for Midterm #1 including diagrams. Very organized with titles and sub titles.

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3012
Tara Haas

Physiology Midterm 1 Review January-05-11 8:43 AM Understand body levels of organization Recognize components of homeostatic control systems ATP drives every single cellular process Glucose + O2 + ADP --> CO2 + H2O + ATP HOMEOSTASIS Maintaining a relatively stable internal environment Temperature Blood Glucose Blood Pressure Since there are so many systems, the one which most affects brain function is given priority Osicllating around a set point value = steady state Levels of Regulation Intracellular Intercellular Local System Organism Body Coordinate Functions Brain receives information (feedback) Stimulus --> Receptor --> Afferent Pathway --> Intergrating Pathway (Brain) --> Efferent Pathway --> Effector --> Response ------> Negative Feedback (returning body to normal state) Hematocrit - regulated value of erythrocytes (RBCs) Set Point - a range of acceptable values meaning 'relative constancy' - adaptive Fact that it is adaptive is not always good (ie. Hypertension) Small fluctuations allowed Optimal Value - set point you are trying to achieve Steady Point - normal range of values above/below set point - requires ATP to maintain Error Signal - deviation from the set point - going away from set point, father away from set point the bigger the error signal In order for homeostasis to work, our body needs Sensors = receptors (nerve endings) * the farther away from set point the closer it is to activating receptor Effectors = nerves, hormones Homeostatic Loop Reflex 1. What is the variable being maintained relatively constant 2. Where are the receptors detecting the change 3. Where is the integrating centre that collects info and sends out info through efferent pathways 4. What are the effectors and what effect do they have on the variable Negative Feedback Signal is detected and response counteracts the initial stimulus Returns body to the original state * Most common form of feedback Shut off system responsible for response Deviation in controlled variable (detected by) Sensor (informs) Integrator (sends instructions to) Effectors(s) (brings about) Compensatory response (results in) Controlled variable restored to normal (leads to) Negative feedback to shut off the system responsible for the response Example: Heat Loss (stimulus) --> Temperature sensitive nerve endings, increase signalling rate (receptors) --> Afferent pathway (nerve fibres) --> Integrating Centre (brain) --> Efferent Pathways (nerve fibres) --> Smooth muscle constriction .: decreased heat loss / skeletal muscle contraction (shivering) .: increased heat production Muscle contraction generates heat By constricting blood vessels in face, hands, feet, etc. you get a reduction in heat loss Antagonistic Effectors Improve responsiveness Temperature Sweating, vasodilation (release heat) Shivering, vasoconstriction (produce heat) Heart Rate Parasympathetic nerves bring heart rate down (back to normal) Sympathetic nerves increase heart rate above 100bmp Blood Glucose Insulin Glucagon Example: 1. Blood Glucose Regulation When blood glucose is low, alpha cells in pancreas stimulate them to secrete glucagon This decreases cell uptake of glucose and increases glucose synthesis Thus blood glucose increases Beta cells stimulate production of insulin 2. Rise in blood pressure when stand up Feedforward Anticipatory (conscious or subconscious) Prepares body for anticipating changes Feedforward and negative feedback compliment each other Example: 1. Increasing heart rate before starting the actual race. Your brain is pre-planning for the race. 2. Food in stomach induces insulin release --> Blood Glucose increases 3. Salivating in response of smelling pizza Positive Feedback (Non-Homeostatic) Response adds to the initial stimulus, strengthens it, keeps trying to exaggerate it Is not responsible for returning body to original state Not commonly used in body Feeds on itself, continually activating itself A very efficient amplification system but needs something to shut it off Example: 1. Oxytocin(released in process of birth) --> uterine contractions --> uterine contractions stimulate more secretion of oxytocin 2. Transcription process that activates its own transcription RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Brings oxygen Removes carbon dioxide Regulates pH (hydrogen ion concentration) Sound production* First line of defense against infection* Lung Structure Low resistance pathway Walls reinforced with rings of cartilage Warms, humidifies and filters air Cellular Composition of Lungs Always lined with cuboidal epithelial cells Ciliated in conducting zone (trachea, bronchi, bronchioles) Mucus-secreting epithelial cells in conducting zone Bronchioles - wrapped with smooth muscle cells Macrophages - in airways and alveoli Remove air borne particles and bacteria Type I Alveolar Cells - made up of flat epithelial cells, majority of alveolus Type II Alveolar Cells - made up of rounded epithelial cells, secrete surfactant Alveolar Structure Pulmonary artery brings deoxygenated blood to lungs Alveoli pick up oxygen so that when they return to left side of heart blood is oxygenated Alveoli critical for function of respiratory system but work with vascular system Thin epithelial cells line alveoli to facilitate easy exchange, few macrophages Steps of Respiration 1. Ventilation: exchange by bulk flow, moving air in and out 2. Gas exchange: Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange by diffusion 3. Gas transport: Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide carried in blood by bulk flow 4. Gas exchange: Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange by diffusion as blood moves through tissues 5. Cellular respiration: use of Oxygen for production of Carbon Dioxide Lung Structure
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