Mosher Readings 2.doc

8 Pages
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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 3020
Professor
Merv Mosher

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Topic 6 1. Degrees of freedom (DOF): the number of independent elements/components of a system – each element is free to vary in specific ways - Example: elbow joint can vary in two ways – flexion and extension 2. Degrees of freedom problem: when a complex system (many DOF) needs to be organized to produce a specific result 3. The determination of the actual number of DOF that must be controlled in coordinated human movement depends on which level of control we are considering 4. When going from a beginner to a skilled performer, the DOF problem is solved – person becomes more coordinated Topic 7 1. An expert performer may have difficulty teaching a beginner an activity because the expert has difficulty understanding how the beginner approaches performing that skill 2. Someone has suffered a stroke and has lost their ability to walk. A physiotherapist must approach skill acquisition from the perspective of the beginner st 3. (a) According to Fitts and Posner, the 1 stage of learning = the cognitive stage of learning (b) Performance during this stage is marked by a large number of errors (c) Beginners are aware of their errors but generally don’t know how to fix them 4. (a) According to Fitts and Posner, the 2 nd stage of learning = the associative stage of learning (b) Errors are less evident in this stage because the performer has acquired the fundamentals/basic mechanics of the skill (though they still need to be improved) (c) Performance variability begins to decrease (performance becomes more consistent) 5. The final stage of learning is also known as the autonomous stage of learning 6. People in the final stage of learning can perform a skill without conscious thought, can perform the skill while simultaneously doing another skill, have small performance variability, can make proper adjustments to correct their own mistakes – not everyone will reach this stage 7. Learners do not make abrupt shifts between stages – there is a gradual transition of the learner’s characteristics from stage to stage – hard to detect what stage someone is in 8. Of the 4 different types of performance curves, the negatively accelerated pattern is more typical of motor skill learning than the others 9. Power law of practice: early practice is characterized by large amounts of improvements, while further practice yields improvement rates that are much smaller 10. (a) There is a relationship between performance and the amount of experience one has (b) Performance will eventually plateau (but learning persists during these times) 11. (a) Freezing the degrees of freedom involves holding some joints rigid while performing a skill (b) Useful for a beginner because they don’t have to focus on as many things – gain control of the many degrees of freedom associated with performing a complex motor skill 12. Functional synergy: DOF work together to enable optimal performance of a skill 13. A skilled baseball batter would be a better batter in cricket relative to a skilled basketball player because the baseball player has movement characteristics that are similar to those required of a cricket batter. The basketball player has to learn a new skill that requires changing their already established coordination pattern ↓ 14. People approach skill learning situations with distinct movement pattern biases that they may need to overcome to achieve a new skill – this can be done by practicing 15. When weight training, neural adaptations occur up until approximately 3-4 weeks. During this time, the brain/body is reorganizing the sequence and timing of muscle activation to reduce the amount of work it has to do and establish a base for successful performance ↓ 16. Economy of movement: minimizing the energy cost of performing a skill 17. Beginners are different than skilled performers because they expend larger amounts of energy 18. Physiological energy use can be measured using: - The amount of oxygen used while performing a skill - The caloric cost of performing a skill 19. Work rate ÷ metabolic rate = mechanical energy 20. As we learn a new skill and perform it with greater efficiency, our energy costs decrease as our movements become more economical 21. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE): amount of effort a person feels that he/she is expending while performing a skill – decreases with practice 22. The 3 skilled performance limb-movement goals achieved through practice a) Displacement – achieved 1 st b) Velocity – achieved 2 nd c) Acceleration – achieved last 23. Kinematic characteristics define the spatial and temporal features of the movements involved in performing a skill (mentioned above: displacement, velocity, acceleration) 24. Differences between an expert and a beginner in terms of visual attention: beginners look at too many things, direct their visual attention to inappropriate environmental cues – with practice people become better at directing their vision to features in the environment that will provide the most useful information when performing a skill 25. Two sports that require a high level of visual attention: soccer, rugby 26. A new learner usually thinks about almost every part of performing the skill. With practice, the amount of conscious thought that occurs when performing a skill is diminished until it is done almost automatically 27. A beginner in hitting a baseball might struggle to hit the ball because he is too busy thinking about all the components of swinging the bat (when, how, etc.) 28. (a) Vision is essential for error detection and correction capability (b) These are both limited when the performance happens very quickly – it is difficult to see what happened and a correction can’t be made until after the performance is complete 29. Plasticity is an important characteristic of the brain that allows for necessary changes to take place as beginners become better at performing a skill 30. Doyon and Ungerlaider proposed that the striatum (caudate + putamen of the basal ganglia), cerebellum, and motor cortex regions of the frontal lobe (SMA, premotor cortex, and motor cortex) were most commonly associated with skill acquisition 31. Well learned skills involve more activity in the basal ganglia (putamen, globus pallidus, inferior parietal lobe of cerebral cortex) – beginners would rely mostly on the cerebellum 32. Visual feedback (such as mirrors when dancing) may hinder performance because people become dependent on them and then are unable to perform in their absence 33. An expert in skilled performance is an outstanding performer – domain specific (expertise does not transfer over into other unrelated fields) 34. Achieve a level of expertise after intense practice for a minimum of 10 years 35. Deliberate practice: individualized training activities especially designed by a coach/teacher to improve certain aspects of an individual’s performance through repetition and successive refinement 36. Experts know more about an activity than non-experts do 37. Expert’s knowledge structure: concepts are organized so it is easier to relate them to each other, there are more decision rules (about how to perform in certain situations) – allows expert to remember more after watching something once 38. Knowledge structure characteristics (↑) enable an expert to solve problems more quickly and efficiently than non-experts 39. A boxing expert might use visual information better than a non-expert because he is able to search his environment faster and select more meaningful information from it in less time – “see” more when they look somewhere (can anticipate the actions of others), making decisions more quickly 40. Factors that attribute to an individual achieving his/her potential in skilled performance: motivation, training, opportunities Topic 8 1. Deciding what to do is one of the most important features of skilled performance. These decisions can be done quickly and predictably 2. It is important to process environmental information when making a decision because a perfectly performed skill is useless if it is not directed correctly (ex: throw a ball perfectly… to the opposition) 3. Information is presented to the human as input and skilled movement as output 4. Three stages by which information must pass on the way from input to output: - Stimulus identification - Response selection - Response programming 5. When the first stage has completed its operations, the result is passed on to the second stage, whose result is passed on to the third stage and so on, finally resulting in an action (output) 6. (a) In the first stage, a stimulus is detected and identified (b) This is primarily a sensory stage (environmental information comes from the senses) (c) The main purpose of this stage is to get an idea of what the presented stimulus is 7. The response-selection stage is responsible for deciding what movement to make given the nature of the environment 8. Before producing a movement, the response-programing stage must ready the lower-level mechanisms in the brainstem & spinal cord for action – organizes and initiates action 9. Reaction time is als
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