Mosher Readings 3.doc

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3020
Merv Mosher

Topic 11 1. The most direct technique to study the role of vision in motor control involves the recording of eye movements as a person performs a skill 2. Difference between a skilled tennis player and a novice tennis player when analyzing their eye movements: skilled – more focus on opponent’s trunk-hip and head- shoulder areas, unskilled – more focus on opponent’s racquet 3. (a) Temporal occlusion procedure: investigates the amount of time a person needs to visually detect the environmental context information he/she uses to perform a skill (b) This procedure is useful in skill performances where choices between several movement alternatives must be made 4. Two benefits of using visual occlusion spectacles: - They can change the visual condition almost instantaneously without the eyes requiring the typical amount of time to adapt to changes between light and dark conditions - Research participants can actually perform skills in their typical environmental context 5. (a) Event occlusion procedure: identifies the specific visual information a person uses to make a required response (b) In this procedure parts, of each frame of film are covered so that the observer cannot see selected parts of the action (i.e. part of body, apparatus, etc.) – if the person performs worse without being able to see a specific feature of the opponents action then when they are able to see it, that feature includes the visual information the person uses to determine the location of the shot 6. Research has shown that the motor control system operates more effectively and efficiently when it receives visual information from both eyes (binocular vision) instead of just one (monocular vision) – this becomes more evident as distance becomes more of a factor 7. Binocular vision is important for depth perception 8. The monocular vision problem is due to a movement initiation problem that results from: - Underestimating the distance to an object - Underestimating an object’s size * When people must use monocular vision to reach for and grab something, they will move their heads in a way that enables them to obtain more accurate information about the size of an object and the distance to it 9. Binocular vision provides better movement control than monocular vision for motor skills such as locomotion and intercepting moving objects 10. A boxer would struggle in a fight if he/she wore an eye-patch because of their diminished ability to intercept moving objects – i.e. block punches 11. Three benefits for the use of binocular vision: - Depth perception - Interception of moving objects - Provides better movement control 12. Central vision is sometimes referred to as foveal vision – detects information only in the middle 2-5 degrees of the visual field 13. Peripheral vision detects information in the visual field outside the limits of central vision (200 degrees horizontally, 160 degrees vertically) 14. Research has shown that peripheral vision provides the central nervous system with information about the environmental context and the moving limb while central vision provides information specific to the object itself (i.e. size and shape) 15. Peripheral vision provides a discus thrower with essential information that allows the thrower to maintain control of the rotation of his/her body 16. Central and peripheral vision work in unison when walking: central vision provides information that guides us so that we stay on path, peripheral vision updates our knowledge about the spatial features of the walking environment (does it change?) 17. Optical flow: the pattern of rays of light that strike the retina of the eye from all parts of the environment – how peripheral vision detects visual cues in the environment 18. According to Paillard, the kinetic visual channel is responsible for processing visual information in peripheral vision (process high-speed movement information and control limb movement direction). The static visual channel is responsible for processing visual information in central vision (slow-speed movements) 19. Two visual systems: - Ventral stream – what you see – vision-for-perception - Dorsal stream – special characteristics of what you see, guides movement – vision-for-action 20. Visual information that we are consciously aware of is detected by the visual system related to central vision (static visual system) Topic 12 1. Expert performers search a visual display more quickly than novices. They are able to locate quickly and extract only those elements of the display that are relevant to the forthcoming response, which novices are less adept at. 2. Cognitive difference between expert and novice performers: experts are better able to interpret and organize skill-related information in memory for better recall 3. Visual occlusion is used to see if experts and novices attend to and extract the same types of visual cues from a visual display 4. Novice badminton players have a hard time anticipating where the shuttlecock would go because they pay more attention to the racquet 5. An expert badminton player better anticipates where the shuttlecock will go upon cont
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