Growth Notes 2.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3340
Nickolas Wattie

Growth Notes 2 3/14/2012 4:14:00 PM Object Control Skill: Overarm throw: Preparatory phase: all movements directed away from intended line of projection Execution: movements in direction of throw Follow through: movements following release of object Wild (1938): Movement progresses from anterior-posterior to horizontal BOS changes from stationary to shifting position Langendorfer (1980): Step 1: no preparatory Step 2: ball beside head, exaggerated elbow flexion Option 1: circulatory preparatory movement Option 2: lateral swing for preparatory Option 3: vertical lift of throwing arm Option 4: arm moves back; by grade 2 boys use this Throwing stages: 1: posterior-anterior direction, feet dont move, little trunk rotation 2: more body rotation, may step forward, arms brought forward 3: ipsilateral arm-leg action, arm goes behind head and as it is thrown the same side leg steps forward 4: contralateral movement, little rotation of hips and spine, stride forward for a side BOS 5: age at which 60% of boys and girls are able to perform at a specific developmental level factors that influence overarm throwing performance: instruction: o training program can help girls with foot action & pelvic-spine rotation but nothing else knowledge instructional cues & critical cues ball size o increase in ball size causes a performer to use a less mature pattern; transition from one handed grasping to two handed angle of ball release o mature angle of release is 15 degrees greatest gender difference for all FS is seen in throwing success in distance throwing in boys is associated with hereditary & sociocultural factors success for distance in girls: greater weight, larger joint diameter best predictor of throwing development Girls: participation in sport, presence of older brother Boys: fathers sport involvement, father-son skill play Catching: action of bringing an airborne object under control by using hands and arms 2 years old: focuses on tosser and not ball, static position, late reaction 5 yr: can anticipate some, can focus on tosser, ball, & hands, correct movements but are slow 15 yr: can predict ball flight, preparatory sequence to catch, smooth movements Stages of two handed catching: 1: arms are straight out with palms upward and inward, try to catch with chest 2: elbows slightly flexed, arms wrap ball against chest, arms move before contact with ball 3: sub 1 chest as first contact, sub 2 attempts to catch with hands 4: flexes elbows with arms in front to prepare, hands used alone 5: 60%; problems occur when they must move toward the object factors the influence catching: ball size ball and background color ball velocity trajectory angle vision and viewing time instruction knowledge & experience catching on the run catching with glove Striking: body part or object used to project another object Starts with ipsilateral then moves to contralateral Stages of striking: 1: posterior-anterior movement o fully flexed elbows o feet remain stationary 2: stationary feet or right/left foot may receive weight, unitary rotation of hip and trunk, bat moves in transverse plane 3: weight to front foot in ipsilateral pattern, trunk movement decreased, bat swung in oblique-vertical plane 4: mature striking striking is one of the developmental stages of dribbling Stationary ball bouncing: immature slaps the ball, mature extends arm, retracts arm when contact is made, hands maintain contact with ball Kicking: form of striking Stages of kicking: 1: near ball, thigh of kicking leg moves forward, knee extension after contact 2: hyperextension at hip, flexion at knee, arm-leg opposition 3: steps taken before, foot stays near surface before the kick, knee extends before contact, arm-leg opposition 4: mature Punting: striking an airborne ball with the foot Stages of punting: 1: ball held in both hands as foot lifts forward and up to push ball, ball may be tossed or bounced, flexion at the hip and knee from start 2: stationary start, ball dropped or tossed, leg is flexed, kicking is more upward 3: forward motion, ball released forward and down, knee flexed at 90, follow through moves punter forward 4: rapid approach and leap, contact with ball at or below knee, momentum carries punter to ground Physical literacy: conceptually broad construct that looks at physical fitness, FMS, physical activity behavior, knowledge Those that are better with FMS are more physically active Static object control FMS in childhood is associated with increased cardiorespiratory fitness during adolescence
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