MODR 1770 summary sheet 2

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York University
Modes Of Reasoning
MODR 1770
Linda Carozza

Two types of reasoning: Deductive Logic 1. Inductive Logic – informal logic, critical reasoning; Validity: if argument is deductively valid, then C must be strong to weak continuum true if P are true. P entail C 2. Deductive Logic – formal logic; invalid, valid but/and Sound argument: deductively valid argument w true P sound Syllogisms: Support: P support C when, if P’s are acceptable, there is a good reason to think C is true Entailment: P entail C when, if P are true, the C must be true Modus Ponen Modus Tollen (affirming the antecedent): (denying the consequent): If P, then Q If P, then Q P ~P (no P) Therefore, Q Therefore, ~Q 10 Principles of Argumentation 1. Argument Principle : expected that arguer agrees to issue being argued, general rules of discourse, common ground when we argue (community meeting argmnt or kitchen table) (R) 2. Truth-Seeking Principle: accurate, strong, plausible argument; sound argument in formal logic (S) 3. Respect Principle: distinguishes arguer from argmnt; someone may have good argmnt regardless of who arguer is (R) 4. Fallibility Principle : arguer acknowledges that they may be wrong or new info proves their argmnt weak (A) 5. Principle of Charity: accurately interpret argmnt; audience fill in the blanks & follow arguer’s path (R) 6. Burden of Proof Principle : onus is arguer to provide reasoning for viewpoint/ premises (A) 7. Challenge & Response Principle : audience expect to have q’s/doubt; arguer expected to have responses ; discussion 8. Resolution Principle : failed defense = withdrawal of argmnt; successful argmnt = audience withdraw q’s/doubt 9. Suspension of Judgment Principle : suspend judgment when no good argmnt; agree to disagree; more info needed 10. Reconsideration Principle: even if argmnt solved/ dialogue over, can open up again when new info come to light (S) Euphemisms: func to substitute harsh terms with milder ones; e.g for breaking up w someone “its me not you” Vague: term/phrase that have no precise meaning; forces audience to allocate meaning; leads to miscommunication Ambiguous: term/phrase that have more than one meaning Syntactic ambiguity (amphibole): language grammatically confusing Semantic ambigui
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