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MODR 1730 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Modus Ponens, Modus Tollens, Deductive Reasoning


Department
Modes Of Reasoning
Course Code
MODR 1730
Professor
Shawn Thomson
Study Guide
Quiz

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QUIZ 1 CHAPTER 1,2,3
of 1 7
CHAPTER 1
"
“the systematic evaluation or formulation of beliefs or statements by rational standards”
Critical Thinking is a set of distinct procedures and methods used to assess the value of, and
create, beliefs and statements that are based on logically well supported principles and
judgment.
"
What are some of the ways we use the word “critical”?
Finding fault and judging with severity (“He’s too critical of his wife”)
Of decisive importance (e“his week’s reading is critical”)
Pertaining to a serious problem (“Her life signs were minimal, she was in critical condition”)
With fissionable material, has enough mass to undergo a chain reaction (“critical mass”)
AND
helps to orient yourself amid uncertainty and commit to a decision based on principled
reasons and evidence
enables one to be an independent thinker that is open to challenge and ambiguity so that
you remain flexible enough to change your ideas, and accept responsibility for your
interactions
is a dialogical and dialectical position
believes that truth is made between you and I – between us – truth is found by
mediating between the reciprocal equality of (at least) two positions
"
All of these senses of the term “critical” are connotations associated with
the idea of Critical Thinking but the denotative meaning of “critical” in this context is,
“exercising careful judgment or judicious evaluation”
"
What does the word “or” mean?
used to indicate that words, phrases, or clauses are distinct and mutually exclusive from one
another (e.g. We can go to the party OR stay home.)
used to indicate that words, phrases, or clauses are synonymous or equivalent forms of
expression (e.g. I’m ambidextrous OR skilled with both hands.)
"
the systematic evaluation and formulation of beliefs and statements by rational standards
systematic -distinct procedures and methods
evaluation -to assess the value of something
formulation -to express/create something
rational standards-logical principles which allows us to judge what is well supported
"
Critical Thinking is a set of distinct procedures and methods used to assess the value of, and
create, beliefs and statements that are based on logically well supported principles and
judgment.
"
WHY IS IT USED?
for the purpose of determining the quality of your beliefs
not directly about what you think, but rather how you think
involves an openness to other points of view
involves a tolerance for opposing perspectives
provides a fair assessment of arguments and evidence
complements and guides our emotions

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QUIZ 1 CHAPTER 1,2,3
of 2 7
"
Three different kinds of thinking (dualistic, relativistic, critical)
Dualistic
presumes there are right & wrong answers
makes an opposition between two ideas/concepts
one term of the opposition is given more value than the other
"
Relativistic
there are no right or wrong answers
ideas are all different but have equal value
there is no standard of truth by which we could determine what is right or wrong
Philosophical Skepticism
the view that we know much less than we think or that we know nothing at all
Subjective Relativism
the idea that truth depends on what someone believes
Social Relativism
the view that truth is relative to societies
"
"
CHAPTER 2
What is a statement?
an assertion that something is or is not the case
must be a complete thought that can be either true or false
"
What is not a statement?
a Question
a Command
a Greeting
an Exclamation
"
ARGUMENT
a group of statements in which at least one of them (the premise) is offered to support
another one of them (the conclusion)
an argument is trying to convince someone of something
"
EXPLANATION
a statement or collection of statements which are offered to describe why or how something
is the case
"
CONDITIONAL STATEMENT
a statement which claims that IF something is the case THEN another case will follow from
this first statement
"
Is a premise a statement?
A premise is always a statement that expresses a complete thought and can be either true or
false.
Is a conclusion a statement?
A conclusion is always a statement that expresses a complete thought and can be either true
or false.
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