NATS 1670 Study Guide - Herd Immunity, Measles, Microorganism

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Herd Immunity
Herd Immunity describes a type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of
a portion of the population provides protection to unprotected individuals
MMR is an effective vaccination against Measles, but it only works if the
majority of the population gets the vaccination—there are still peaks of the virus
at times
How to Make a Vaccine: Vaccination Strategies
Natural
-Exposure to sub-clinical infections (ex: chicken pox party—being exposed later in life is
dangerous and can be fatal)
Artificial
-Attenuated organisms/killed organisms sub cellular (dead or attenuated pathogens that
do not actually give you the disease, only helps resist it in the future)
-Toxins/toxoid
-Small fragments
Live Attenuated Vaccines
When making attenuated vaccines, the aim is to make “live” attenuated vaccines
—this is done through attenuation from the host parent cell.
Live: With an ability to replicate in host cells
Can also be attenuated by:
-The host parent cell goes into the human cell
-The host parent cell goes into an animal cell (over and over until attenuated)
-The receptors of the two cells are different—the attenuated outline fits well with animal
cells but is difficult to effectively link with human cells
-Can still be forced into human cells, but is good because it will be harder to get disease
-An adapted microbe can live better in its new host cells
*Basically, taking the focus away from humans—getting the virus to go after something
else (in this case, animals such as chickens)
1885 Rabies Vaccine
Attenuation was achieved by serial infection in rabbits led to a virus strain that
was more virulent in the rabbit but was less so in dogs and humans.
Rabies can enter into the body and stay there only if the virus enters into neurons
(keeps the virus alive and protected)—slowly moves from the tips of our toes to
our nervous system—can take up to 18 months
Today, we do not have attenuated vaccines, because of the worry that the virus replicating
in your system can produce an aggressive, bad mutation in the body.
Now, we use “kill” vaccines with dead pathogens—looking like the actual pathogen but
isn’t strong enough to infect the patient
Live Attenuated Vaccines (cont.)
The virus in the vaccine must stay “alive”: to replicate in the vaccine’s cells
Storage
-Keeping the virus until needed
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Document Summary

Exposure to sub-clinical infections (ex: chicken pox party being exposed later in life is dangerous and can be fatal) Attenuated organisms/killed organisms sub cellular (dead or attenuated pathogens that do not actually give you the disease, only helps resist it in the future) Live attenuated vaccines: when making attenuated vaccines, the aim is to make live attenuated vaccines. This is done through attenuation from the host parent cell: live: with an ability to replicate in host cells. The host parent cell goes into the human cell. The host parent cell goes into an animal cell (over and over until attenuated) The receptors of the two cells are different the attenuated outline fits well with animal cells but is difficult to effectively link with human cells. Can still be forced into human cells, but is good because it will be harder to get disease. An adapted microbe can live better in its new host cells.

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