NATS 1670 Study Guide - Protein Subunit, Hepatitis B Vaccine, Hpv Vaccines

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Killed Virus Vaccine vs. Live Virus Vaccine
Using just the kill vaccine: the virus is dead, therefore cannot replicate in cells—
must give several doses (approx. 3) in order for the vaccine to remain in the
system for life
Live vaccine allows the cells to replicate—stays in your system for longer
Bacterial Exotoxins
Bacterial proteins (enzymes)
Destroy host cellular structures
Toxoids
Inactivated toxin
(1) Diphtheria
-Reduces activity of the heart
-Eradicated in most countries
(2) Tetanus
-Caused by bacteria that could be found anywhere
Usually results in part of the toxin (deactivated), which can be injected in the
body to improve the immune response
Small Fragments
The virulent parental virus is exposed (good target for antibodies)
Fractionation (getting the end pieces from the virus)
Purified subunit vaccine
OR
Biotechnology (making a specific protein from a different organism in a safe and
easy way)
The virulent parental virus is exposed
Cloning using yeast/bacterial cells
Getting the genome within the viral cell to enter the yeast/bacterial cell
Process of expression
Purified subunit vaccine
Hepatitis B Virus: A fragment vaccine
HBsAg
First generation hepatitis B vaccine during the 80’s—extracted from the blood
plasma of hepatitis patients
Today: cloned in yeast (safe)
Hepatitis B can be prevented
Can be spread from blood to blood, or sexually transmitted
The first vaccine against cancer
HPV Vaccine
The cause of cervical cancer (the 5th leading cancer in females)
Vaccine developed recently: the actual HPV virus has an outer shell and genomes
(the inside parts which infect people), whereas the vaccine just has the outer shell
to LOOK like the virus, but cannot infect people (no genomes)
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Document Summary

Killed virus vaccine vs. live virus vaccine: using just the kill vaccine: the virus is dead, therefore cannot replicate in cells must give several doses (approx. 3) in order for the vaccine to remain in the system for life: live vaccine allows the cells to replicate stays in your system for longer. Bacterial exotoxins: bacterial proteins (enzymes, destroy host cellular structures. Caused by bacteria that could be found anywhere: usually results in part of the toxin (deactivated), which can be injected in the body to improve the immune response. Small fragments: the virulent parental virus is exposed (good target for antibodies, fractionation (getting the end pieces from the virus, purified subunit vaccine. Artificially (taking antibodies from someone else: used as a drug: active: Artificially (vaccination activating our own cells: both passive and active methods are handled by our acquired immunity, natural modes: Woman exposed to breast cancer: her 2 positive.

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