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NATS 1670 Study Guide - Final Guide: Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Endocytosis, Drug Discovery


Department
Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1670
Professor
Motti Anafi
Study Guide
Final

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HIV- Entry into the Cell: Resistance to Infection and Drug Discovery
Penetration of enveloped viruses by Endocytosis
This interaction between the envelope virus and cell membrane requires more
intimate contact: the protein must attach to the receptors of the cell surface
Different viruses have different attachment viruses (therefore binding to different
receptors)
After this interaction takes place, the virus actively moves towards the membrane
of the cell, thus having a fusion
Herpes virus, influenza and HIV each use this process
HIV- Entry into the Cell
Helper T (CD4+) cells are major target for HIV
Gp120 bind to CD4
-Gp120 is shown as the hanging parts at the end of the virus membrane (the parts
that bind with receptors)
However, such a binding by itself is not enough for the virus to enter the cell
Chemokine receptor CCR5 is necessary to co-receptors along with CD4
CCR5 is needed from time to time but only for unique infections
CCR5 is not toxic/harmful
People can still live normally without CCR5
Delta 32 mutation in the CCR5 gene
HIV and CCR5 Mutated Cell
With a mutated CCR5 cell, no infection takes place (prevents the virus from going
further)
25% of long term HIV survivors (carriers for a long time without the full AIDS)
have a specific CCR5 mutation
People who are carriers to HIV but somehow do not get the full AIDS may owe
their lives to the survivors of Europe’s bubonic plague epidemic in the 1300’s
-The bubonic plague was a type of bacteria that killed 1/3 of the human
population
Berlin Patient
Berlin patient HIV positive
Taking bone marrow from an individual with a mutated CCR5 gene and giving it
to the berlin patient
The berlin patient was treated successfully: HIV negative
This process cannot be easily done: bone marrow transplantation is very serious
Led us to another type of drug discovery and comprehension
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