Mechanical arts = practical arts = engineering = specific knowledge
Scientific knowledge = natural philosophy = universal knowledge
Natural philosophy (scientific) = WHY? Technical arts (craftsmen) = HOW?
Used scientific knowledge for practical purposes such as astronomical findings. This
is why societies were seen as technological instead of scientific.
Greeks: believed knowledge for knowledge sake.
Plato used scientific knowledge, which was known as natural philosophy at the time
and said that technical arts (craftsmen) were mundane. Because craftsmen couldn’t
account for why things worked, technical arts were only limited to 1 object created.
Mechanical arts are considered to be inferior to natural philosophy which is
considered “universal” knowledge and is given higher status to natural philosophers
(plate and Aristotle)
Medieval: Hugh St. Victor used religion to raise status on technical arts by linking it
to religious salvation.
Renaissance 15 and 16 C.E.: this is when science and technology began to have a
positive relationship because natural philosophers used scientific knowledge on
Leonardo da Vinci: he was a new type of individual since he was both an
engineer and a natural philosopher. He investigated in scientific problems
(scientific knowledge) via ex