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Natural Science
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

Mechanical arts = practical arts = engineering = specific knowledge Scientific knowledge = natural philosophy = universal knowledge Natural philosophy (scientific) = WHY? Technical arts (craftsmen) = HOW? Ancient Civilization: Used scientific knowledge for practical purposes such as astronomical findings. This is why societies were seen as technological instead of scientific. Greeks: believed knowledge for knowledge sake. Plato used scientific knowledge, which was known as natural philosophy at the time and said that technical arts (craftsmen) were mundane. Because craftsmen couldn’t account for why things worked, technical arts were only limited to 1 object created. Mechanical arts are considered to be inferior to natural philosophy which is considered “universal” knowledge and is given higher status to natural philosophers (plate and Aristotle) Medieval: Hugh St. Victor used religion to raise status on technical arts by linking it to religious salvation. th th Renaissance 15 and 16 C.E.: this is when science and technology began to have a positive relationship because natural philosophers used scientific knowledge on practical purposes.  Leonardo da Vinci: he was a new type of individual since he was both an engineer and a natural philosopher. He investigated in scientific problems (scientific knowledge) via ex
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