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PSYC 1010
Heather Jenkins

Chapter 5 Sample Questions 1. Psychologists differentiate between sensation and perception as stimulus detection and how we understand this stimulus. Sensation is how stimulus by our sense organs, i.e., the eyes and ears, respond to and translate stimuli from our environment to nerve impulses sent to be understood in the brain. Perception is how our brain organizes these stimuli into our "reality." 2. Absolute threshold is the minimum required amount of mV so that a stimulus can be detected. An example of absolute threshold would be the amount of pressure required to feel someone's touch. 3. Sensory adaption accounts for constant stimulus, decreasing sensitivity to these stimuli so that we can detect other ones. Sensory adaption's survival value is great, as it allows us pick up informative changes in our environment. 4. Fatigue, expectation, and potential significance are all examples of factors affecting signal detection. Expectation is a factor of signal detection, as explained by the signal detection experiment (the warning light test, with a tone that may or may not play). Participants become bolder or more conservative with their answer if there were rewards or consequences for correct/incorrect responses. 5. Cones are densely packed within the fovea, which is in the centre of the retina, while rods are mainly aren't the periphery. Visual acuity is due to the densely packing of the cones in the fovea, which then send signals to a single bipolar cell. Rods are the primary white/black brightness receptors, while cones are the colour receptors. They send messages to the bipolar cells, which then synapse with a layer of ganglion cells. These ganglion cells axons are collected to form a optic nerve. After this the message is sent to the brain, more specifically the higher visual centres. 6. Transduction is how nerve impulses are produced from stimuli. The rods and cones turn light waves into impulses through proteins called photopigments. These molecules absorb light, create a chemical reaction and that changes the rate of neurotransmitter at the receptor's synapse in the bipolar cell. The greater the change equates to the stronger the signal that is passed on from the bipolar cell to the ganglion to the axons that from the optic nerve. 7. According to frequency theory, from zero to one thousand hertz, pitch is detected by the number of nerve impulses matching the frequency of the sound wave. However after one thousand hertz pitch is detected by a specific point in the cochlea where fluid waves peak and bends the hair cells that send the impulse to the brain, as explained by the place theory. 8. The two varieties of deafness are conduction and nerve deafness. Conduction deafness is caused by problems inovling the mechanical system that transmits sound waves to the cochlea. For example a punctured ear drum may reduce the ears capacity to transmit vibrations. Using a hearing aid would help a person suffering from this type of deafness. However a hearing aid may not help one with nerve deafness, as the source of the deafness is caused by damaged receptors. Not much can be done to help with this type of deafness, but measures can be taken to prevent damage to those exposed to hazardous noise in the workplace. 9. Bottom up processing is when an individual takes each separate component in a stimulus and combines them to create a unified perception. Visual system acts in this way. Top down processing is when sensory information is interpreted without pre existing knowledge, and accounts for many psychological influences such as motives and expectations. 10. The first Gestalt law is similiarity, when objects of similar size and shape are grouped together for example if there are 6 balls in total, and four are small and red while two are huge and green, then we will group them red/small and green/huge. The second law is proximity, which is when two elements are near each other they are grouped together. Closure is the third law of Gelstalt, which is when people close open edges or gaps to identify the form or to "complete the figure." For example, a half circle is called a half circle because we complete it and associate it with a circle, then approximate its value in comparison. The last law is continuity, which is how we link elements together in a pattern that makes sense. Chapter 6 questions 1. The suprachiamatic neuron in the brain, acts as the biological clock. They link to the pineal gland which releases melatonin, a hormone that relaxes the body and promotes sleep. During the day the SCN's are active and reduces the amount of melatonin released in the body, at night they increase melatonin production. 2. During stage 1 sleep, your brain wave patterns on the EEG display more theta waves (4-8 cycles). With periodic bursts of rapid brain-wave activity, stage 2 has begun(12-15). As we fall into stage 3 of the sleep cycle, our brain waves slow once again and the brain wave patterns called delta patterns appear. (0.5 - 2 cycles per second). When delta waves dominate the EEG, then stage four sleep as been reached. 3. Rapid Eye movements, vivid storylike dreams quicken heart rate, brainwave activity similar to a conscious person, inability to contract muscle are common characteristics of REM sleep. 4. Restoration function of sleep is that it helps replenish our rundown bodies and recover from daily tolls. An experiment would be to time the amount of sleep an individual has each day over the course of a week. Then increase the amount of physical activity they have for one week, then have them go back to their original schedule, then increase their amount of physical activity even more than before for another week, and see when the individual required more sleep. then repeat with multiple patients. Evolutionary theory of sleep proposes that sleep increases a species chance of survival. Leaving our shelter at night has little purpose to some species, other than to become prey for another species. 5. It may be vital for mental functioning, especially for processes related to learning and memory, and the high level of brain activity may help to strengthen the neural circuits involved in remembering important info. 6. Freud proposes that dreams are involved with wish fulfillment, accomplishing unacceptable urges and desires. Activation synthesis theory states tha
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