PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Connectionism, Compulsive Gamblers, Amygdala

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Published on 10 Mar 2018
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
PSYC 1010
Test #3 Notes (February 16) 28%
Modules 24-26, Modules 27-28, Modules 29-32, Modules 33-36 (only section 35-6 for Module 35),
Modules 37-39, Video #16
Memory
Module #24: Studying and Encoding Memories
Studying Memory:
Measuring Retention
Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information.
To a psychologist, evidence that learning persists includes these three measures of retention:
o Recall: retrieving information that is not currently in your conscious awareness but that was
learned at an earlier time. A fill-in-the-blank question tests your recall.
o Recognition: identifying items previously learned. A multiple-choice question tests your
recognition.
o Relearning: learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time. When you
study for a final exam or engage a language used in early childhood, you will relearn the material
more easily than you did initially.
Our recognition memory is impressively quick and vast.
Tests of recognition and of time spent relearning demonstrate that we remember more than we can recall.
Multiple-choice questions test our recognition. Fill-in-the-blank questions test our recall.
)f you want to be sure to remember what you’re learning for an upcoming test, would it be better to use
recall or recognition to check your memory? Why?
It would be better to test your memory with recall (such as with short-answer or fill-in-the blank self-test
questions) rather than recognition (such as with multiple-choice questions). Recalling information is
harder than recognizing it. So if you can recall it, that means your retention of the material is better than if
you could only recognize it. Your chances of test success are therefore greater.
Studying Memory:
Memory Models
An information-processing model likens human memory to computer operations. Thus, to remember any
event, we must:
o Get information into our brain, a process called encoding.
o Retain that information, a process called storage.
o Later get the information back out, a process called retrieval.
Encoding: the processing of information into the memory systemfor example, by extracting meaning.
Storage: the process of retaining encoded information over time.
Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage.
Human memory vs. Computer operations
o Human memories less literal and more fragile than a computer’s.
o Computers process information sequentially, even when alternating between tasks, whereas the
human brain processes information simultaneously (some of them unconsciously) by parallel
processing.
Parallel Processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural
mode of information processing for many functions.
Multitasking processing information-processing model called connectionism views memories as
products of interconnected neural networks.
o Specific activation patterns cause specific memories to arise.
o Every time you learn something new neural connections change and strengthen.
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Memory-forming process:
1. We first record to- be- remembered information as a fleeting sensory memory.
2. From there, we process information into short- term memory, where we encode it through
rehearsal.
3. Finally, information moves into long- term memory for later retrieval.
Sensory Memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Working Memory
o Short-term memory: a small, brief storage space for recent thoughts and experiences.
o Short-term Memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a
phone number while calling, before the information is stored or forgotten.
o NOT just a temporary shelf for holding incoming information.
o Brain processes incoming information & links it with long-term memories.
o Long-term Memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
o What we hear depends on how our experience guide interprets and encodes the sounds.
o
o Working Memory: a newer understanding of short- term memory that focuses on conscious, active
processing of incoming auditory and visual- spatial information, and of information retrieved from
long- term memory.
o Working memory is used to link the information we read to previously stored information.
o Central executive handles focused processing; integrating new memories into pre-existing long-
term memories.
o What two new concepts update the classic Atkinson-Shiffrin three-stage information processing
model?
(1) We form some memories through automatic processing, without our awareness. The Atkinson-
Shiffrin model focused only on conscious memories.
(2) The newer concept of a working memory emphasizes the active processing that we now know
takes place in Atkinson-Shiffrin’s short-term memory stage.
o What are two basic functions of working memory?
(1) Active processing of incoming visual-spatial and auditory information
(2) Focusing our spotlight of attention.
Encoding Memories:
Dual-Track Memory: Effortful Versus Automatic Processing
Declarative Memories: the facts and experiences that we can consciously know and declare.
Effortful Processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Automatic Processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and
frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Implicit Memory: retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of
conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.)
Encoding Memories:
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Automatic Processing and Implicit Memories
Implicit memories include:
o Procedural Memory: automatic skills (such as how to ride a bike).
o Classically conditioned associations among stimuli.
Ex: If attacked by a dog in childhood, years later you may, without recalling the conditioned association,
automatically tense up as a dog approaches.
Without conscious effort you also automatically process information about:
o Space: the space on a page where you left off your last sentence.
o Time: sequence of events in a day and the approximate time they occurred.
o Frequency: how many times something occurs in a certain period of time.
Encoding Memories:
Effortful Processing and Explicit Memories
Automatic processing happens effortlessly. When you see words on a sign, you can’t help but read them
and register their meaning.
Learning to read wasn’t automatic, but with experience and practice, your reading became automatic.
Imagine learning to read reversed sentences - at first it requires effort, but after enough practice, you
would also perform this task much more automatically. We develop many skills in this way: driving,
texting, and speaking a new language.
Sensory memory feeds our active working memory, recording momentary images of scenes or echoes of
sounds.
Iconic Memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory
lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
Echoic Memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and
words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
o Ex: Picture yourself in conversation, as your attention veers to your smartphone screen. If your
mildly irked companion tests you by asking, What did ) just say? you can recover the last few
words from your mind’s echo chamber. Auditory echoes tend to linger for  or  seconds.
Working memory is an active stage, where our brains make sense of incoming information and link it with
stored memories.
George Miller proposed that we can store about seven bits of information in short-term memory.
Miller’s magical number seven is psychology’s contribution to the list of magical sevensthe seven
wonders of the world, the seven seas, the seven deadly sins, the seven primary colors, the seven musical
scale notes, the seven days of the weekseven magical sevens.
Without the active processing that we now understand to be a part of our working memory, short-term
memories have a limited life.
Working memory capacity varies, depending on age and other factors.
Compared with children and older adults, young adults have more working memory capacity, so they can
use their mental workspace more efficiently. This means their ability to multitask is relatively greater.
Unlike short-term memory capacity, working memory capacity appears to reflect intelligence level.
People with a large working memory capacitywhose minds can juggle multiple items while processing
informationtend also to retain more information after sleep and to be creative problem solvers.
What is the difference between automatic and effortful processing, and what are some examples of each?
Automatic processing occurs unconsciously (automatically) for such things as the sequence and frequency
of a day’s events, and reading and comprehending words in our own language. Effortful processing requires
attention and awareness and happens, for example, when we work hard to learn new material in class, or
new lines for a play.
At which of Atkinson-Shiffrin’s three memory stages would iconic and echoic memory occur?
Sensory memory.
What are some effortful processing strategies that can help us remember new information?
o Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
o Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational
devices.
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Document Summary

Modules 24-26, modules 27-28, modules 29-32, modules 33-36 (only section 35-6 for module 35), Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. To a psychologist, evidence that learning persists includes these three measures of retention: recall: retrieving information that is not currently in your conscious awareness but that was learned at an earlier time. A fill-in-the-blank question tests your recall: recognition: identifying items previously learned. A multiple-choice question tests your recognition: relearning: learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time. When you study for a final exam or engage a language used in early childhood, you will relearn the material more easily than you did initially. Our recognition memory is impressively quick and vast. Tests of recognition and of time spent relearning demonstrate that we remember more than we can recall.

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