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Modules 7-16 (Test 2) Oct 15 -Nov 19.docx

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PSYC 1010
Heather Jenkin

Test 2 – Module 7 -16 Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind Module 7 – Brain States and Consciousness  In the beginning, psychology was “the description and explanation of states of consciousness” – however in the first half of the 20 century many psychologist found it difficult to study consciousness  Therefore, they turned toobservablebehavior - defining psychology as “science of behvaiour”  After 1960s mental concepts reemerged  Neuroscience advances related brain activity to sleeping, dreaming and other mental processes Consciousness – moment to moment awareness of ourselves and our environment Consciousness is…  alertness; being awake vs. being unconscious  self-awareness; the ability to think about self  having free will; being able to “conscious” decision  a person‟s mental content, thoughts, and imagining  Allows us to assemble info from many sources as we reflect on our past and plan for future  Focuses our attention when we learn a complex concept or behavior – then it becomes automatic, ex. “When learning to drive, we focus on the car and the traffic. With practice, driving becomes semi-automatic, freeing us to focus our attention on other things”  Subjective + private – other cannot directly know our reality( and vice versa)  Self-reflective – mind is aware of its own consciousness  We move from different states of consciousness ex. sleep, waking etc.  Helps us act in our long term interests (by considering consequences) rather than merely seeking short term pleasure and avoiding pain  Promotes our survival by anticipating how we seem to others and helping us read their minds, ex. “He looks really angry! I’d better run!” States of Consciousness Some states occur spontaneously Daydreaming Drowsiness Dreaming Some are physiologically induced Food or oxygen Hallucinations Orgasm starvation Some are psychologically induced Sensory Hypnosis Meditation deprivation The Biology of Consciousness Mind Body Problem  What is the relationship b/w mind and body? Does the mind exist separately from the body?  Dualist say yes – the mind and the body are interacting but distinct entities  Monists argue that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing = the mind is what the brain does Theorists or Theory Belief Descartes  Mind is non- physical and immortal  body is physical and mortal  Vibrations in the brain that vibrate in the pineal gland (center of the brain) makes us aware of our sensory environment Spinoza  Mind and brain are two different levels of explanation for the same thing Reductionism  Mind-based concepts are simply biological constructs Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience – the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with mental processes/cognition (including perception, thinking, memory and language)  Even in a vegetative state , scientist have found that the brain and mind are still active  One view, sees consciousness experiences as produced by synchronized activity across the brain – based on the strength of the stimuli o Strong stimuli – triggers activity in other brain areas o Weak stimuli – may trigger the specific brain area for processing which quickly dies out Cognitive Unconscious  Controlled versus Automatic Processing Controlled Automatic o Effortful o Little or no conscious processing o Voluntary use of attention, conscious effort o Routine, well-learned tasks o Difficult or new tracks o Fast but inhibit finding “new” solutions o Slower but more flexible than automatic o Facilitated “divided attention” Measuring Consciousness  How do we operationally define inner states?  Self- reports- direct but not verifiable  Physiological - ex. EEG (objective but cannot indicate what person is experiencing subjectively)  Behavioural – Performance on tasks (Need to infer state of mind) Rogue Test  Consciousness is a state of self-awareness  Recognition of oneself in a mirror o First used in a study in 1972 o Researchers put red lipstick (rogue) on children‟s noses and placed them in front of a mirror o Monitored their behaviour  At 6 months, they point to the “other” child in the mirror (actually themselves) because they are not consciously aware that it is actually them  At 18 months, children are becoming self-aware and try to rub the lipstick off their own nose because they are aware that it is themselves who is in the mirror Dual Processing: The Two-Track Mind Dual processing – the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious track  Thinking, memory, perception, language and attitude all operate on two levels – a conscious, deliberate “high road” and unconscious, automatic “low road” Blindsight – a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it  David Milner and Melvyn Goodale: D.F., a local women who suffered brain damage from carbon monoxide poisoning, was left unable to recognize and discriminate objects visually – consciously she could see nothing – yet, she would act as if she could see o Experiment: asked “ to slip a postcard into a vertical or horizontal mail slot” o Result: She was able to without error. o Conclusion: She was unable to report the width of a block in front of her, but she could grasp it within a small distance  Temporary blindness (magnetic pulses to your brain‟s primary visual cortex area) – would create blind sight – as you correctly guess the right colour or orientation of an object you can‟t see  The eye sends info simultaneously to different brain areas which support different task, for D.F., brain activity revealed normal activity in the area concerned with reaching for, grasping, and navigating objects, but damage in the area concerned with consciously recognizing objects  Vision is a dual processing system Visual perception track – enables us to “think about the world” + recognize things and to plan future actions Visual action track – guides our moment-to-moment movements  On rare occasions: the two interact - “hollow face illusion”  Your brain waves jump about 0.35 seconds before you consciously perceive your decision to move – consciousness sometimes arrives later in decision-making process  Running on unconsciousness, our conscious mind is allowed to monitor the whole system and deal with new challenges, while neural systems oversee routines  Our conscious parallel processing is faster than conscious processing but both are essential Selective Attention Think Before you Act?  In one study, students showed brain activity related to pushing a button BEFORE they were aware of their decision to push the button  Does this mean the “decision” is an illusion  Why Have Two-Tracks ( possible benefits): not having to think about everything we do all at once, ex. you can hit or catch a ball without having to consciously calculate its trajectory, you can speak without having to think about the definition of each word Selective Attention – the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Cocktail party effect – We can focus our mental spotlight on a conversation even when other conversations are going on around us - your ability to attend to only one voice among many – when another voice speaks your name, your cognitive radar, operating on your minds other track will instantly bring that voice into consciousness Selective attention and Accidents  When focused on a task, such as reading, people blink less than when their mind is wandering  Multitasking distracts from brain resources allocated for doing a particular tasks, such as driving  Conversation with a passenger who can see the driving demands and pause the conversation is deemed more safe, then texting, phone calls and even hands-free cell phone use Selective Inattention Inattentional blindness – failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere  By product of human‟s great ability to focusing attention on some part of our environment  Refers to our failure to notice part of our environment when our attention is directed elsewhere Change blindness – failing to notice changes in the environment Module 8 – Sleep and Dream  When you sleep, as when you are awake, you process most information outside your conscious awareness Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian Rhythm Circadian Rhythm-“about a day”– the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (ex. of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle of day and night, light and dark  Temperature: Rises in the morning, peaks during the day, then decreases in early afternoon and begins to drop again in the evening – rises when awake + decreases when asleep  Plasma melatonin – decreases when awake + rises when asleep  Mental sharpness changes - thinking is sharpest and memory most accurate in our daily peak in circadian arousal  Arousal and energy increase/decreases  Age and experience can alter our circadian rhythm o Young adults (20 yrs old) – evening-energized “owls” –performance improving across the day o Older adults (50 yrs old) – morning-loving “larks” – performance declining as the day wears on  Morning types tend to do better in school, to take more initiative and to be less vulnerable to depression Sleep Stages Sleep stages – refer  24 hour biological “clock”  Every 90 minutes we cycle through four distinct sleep stages o Electrodes place on, your scalp (to detect your brain waves), on your chin (to detect muscle tension), and just outside the corners of your eyes (to detect eye movements) + other devices to record heart rate, respiration rate and genital arousal o EEG shows alpha waves – the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state  Sleep – periodic, natural, easily reversible loss of consciousness – as distinct from unconsciousness, resulting from coma, general anesthesia or hibernation 1. NREM-1 -slowed breathing and irregular brain waves  NREM-1 you may experience hallucinations – false sensor experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus 2. NREM-2 – last 20 minutes, relax more deeply, with its periodic sleep spindles – bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity 3. NREM-3 – last 30 minutes, deep sleep, brain emits delta waves – large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep REM Sleep  Cycle of REM stages repeats every 90 minutes for young adults (more frequently for older adults)  After returning through NREM-3, then NREM-2 phase, you enter REM sleep for about 10 minutes not NREM-1  Eugene Aserinsky: REM sleeps(rapid eye movement sleep) – a recurring sleeps stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Or paradoxical sleep –muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active o Brain motor cortex is active during REM sleep but brainstem blocks messages – sleep paralysis o REM sleep = paradoxical sleep: “The body is internally aroused, with waking-like brain activity, yet asleep and externally calm”  REM sleep: heart rate rises, rapid and irregular breathing, brain waves activity increases, and every 30 seconds eyes dart around in momentary bursts of activity behind closed lids (signal of a beginning of a dream)  Genital arousal and erection for both sexes occur during REM sleep Alpha Waves NREM-1 NREM-2 NREM-3 REM sleep 10 mins 20 mins 30 mins 10 – 100 mins Cycle = 90 -120 minutes Sleep: Brain & Environment  Involvement of several brain structures  Falling asleep - Regulated by basal forebrain & regions of brainstem  REM Sleep o Regulated by brainstem (reticular formation) o Limbic system activity increases o Association areas near visual cortex active o Motor cortex active but signals blocked o Decreased activity in prefrontal cortex What Affects Our Sleep Patterns?  Different age groups + genetic make-up + cultural influence may all affect the amount of sleep hours a individual requires  With sleep, as with waking behavior, biology and environment interact The Biological Clock  Circadian rhythms regulated by suprachiamatic nuclei (SCN)  SCN neurons link to pineal gland, which secretes melatonin  Circadian rhythms – promote readiness for sleep  Disruption of Circadian rhythms o Jet lag o Night-shift work o Seasonal affective disorder  Seasonal Affect Disorder (SAD) o Treated with phototherapy Sleep Theories  Sleep differs from person to person and culture to culture. Psychologists believed sleep may have evolved for 5 reasons: 1. Sleep protected our ancestors from predators (has survivor value). -A species‟ sleep pattern tends to suit its ecological niche, ex. when darkness overcame day, the day’s hunting and gathering were over, ancestors were safer sleeping in a cave then trying to navigate around cliffs at night + more likely to pass on descendents as they cautiousindividuals lived 2. Sleep restores and repairs the brain and body. - It helps restore and repair brain tissue -Gives resting neurons time to repair themselves, while pruning or weakening unused connections 3. Sleep helps restore and rebuild our fading memories of the day’s experiences. -Sleep consolidates our memories – it strengthens and stabilizes neural memory traces -Neural activity during slow-wave sleep re-enacts and promotes recall of prior novel experiences -Sleep strengths memories 4. Sleep facilitates creative thinking and problem solving. - Sleep gives a boost to our thinking and learning - After working on a task, then sleeping on it, people solve problems more insightfully than do those who stay awake - Also improves our awareness of connections b/w novel pieces of information 5. Sleep supports growth (when growth hormones are active). -During deep sleep, the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone – necessary for muscle development - As we age, we release less of this hormone and spend less time in deep sleep Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Disorders Effects of Sleep Loss  “The brain keeps an accurate count of sleep debt for at least two weeks”  Sleep commands one-third of our lives – allowed to sleep unhindered most adults would sleep for 9hrs  9hrs of sleep will leave people refreshed, in better moods and perform more efficiently and accurate work  Sleep loss is a predictor of depression  When we don‟t get an adequate amount of sleep we: lose brainpower, gain weight, get sick, be irritableand may feel old  Sleep deprivation increases weight gain –increases ghrelin (hunger-arousing hormone) and cortisol (stress hormone that stimulates body to make fat) + decreases leptin (hunger-suppressing partner)  Suppresses immune cells that fight off viral infections and cancer  Mood suffers – irritability  Sleep deprivation negatively impacts cognitive & physical performance - slows reactions and increases errors on visual attention tasks  Types of sleep deprivation: o Short term (up to 45 hours without sleep) o Long term (more than 45 hours) o Partial (no more than 5 hours/night for 1 or more consecutive nights)  Takes several nights to recover from sleep deprivation, cannot make it up in one long block of sleep Major Sleep Disorders Insomnia – recurring problems in falling or staying asleep. Affects 1 in 10 adults and 1 in 4 older adults  Multiple causes: biological, psychological and/or environmental  Several treatments: individual stimulus control (ex. lights, TV), learning principles ( associate bedroom with sleeping only, not a place to eat dinner or watch TV) Pseudoinsomniacs  Complain of insomnia – but sleep normally  Individuals truly believe they have insomnia  Research in sleep labs show most sleep normally Narcolepsy – a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times, usually lasting less than 5 minutes. Affects 1 in 2000  Cataplexy – sudden loss of muscle tone  Absence of a hypothalamic neural center that produces orexin (hypocretin – neurotransmitter linked to alertness)  Found that narcolepsy is a genetic brain disease; it is not jus “in your mind” – but official cause is not known REM-sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD)  Loss of muscle tone that causes REM sleep paralysis is absent  Sleeper may “act out” dreams: kick, punch,move wildly Sleep Apnea – a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings often due to an obstruction of airway. Affects 1 in 20  Lasts 20-20 seconds up to minute or two  After an airless minute, decreased blood oxygen arouses them and they wake up enough to snort in air for a few seconds, in a process that repeats hundreds of times a night, depriving them of slow-wave sleep  Associated with obesity + loud snoring, daytime sleepiness and irritability, (possibly) high blood pressure  Mask-like device with an air pump that keeps the sleeper‟s airway open – relieve apnea symptoms Sleep walking  Typically occurs stage 3 or stage 4  More common among children (10-30%)  Causes: heredity, stress, alcohol, illness, medications  Treatment: psychotherapy, hypnosis, drugs, behavioural (waking before sleepwalking), wait to outgrow it  Myth: waking a sleepwalker is dangerous Night Terrors - characterized by repeated episodes of abrupt awakening, usually with a panicky scream, and accompanied by intense anxiety, confusion, agitation, disorientation, and total amnesia concerning the event.  Mostly children - may sit up, walk around, experience doubled heart/ breathing rates and appear terrified.  NOT NIGHTMARES ( occur during REM sleep + “bad” dreams), night terrors occur first few hours of NREM-3, like sleepwalking  Sleep talking occur during any phase of sleep Changes in Sleep with Age REM rebound – the tendency for REM sleep to decrease following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)  Different sleeping times and phases vary for different ages  We need REM sleep, being deprived of it by being awakened people return more and more quickly to the REM stage after falling back asleep.  When allowed to sleep undisturbed, they literally sleep like babies – with increased REM sleep How to Sleep Well 1. Turn the lights low and turn all screens off 2. Eat, earlier, and drink less alcohol and caffeine 3. Get up at the same time every day 4. Exercise (late afternoon is best) 5. Don‟t check the clock; just let it happen 6. Get counseling for anxiety and depression Dreams What We Dream Dreams – a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person‟s mind.  Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, andstrangeness, and for the dreamer‟s delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it  Two-track mind is monitoring our environment while we sleep - sensory stimuli may be brought up in a dream, such as real-world noises into our dreams What we dream about  Dreams often include some negative event or emotion, especially failure dreams (being pursued, attacked, and rejected)  Dreams do not include sexuality  Dreams also include images from recent, traumatic, or frequent experiences Why We Dream Theory Explanation Critical Considerations Freud‟s wish-  To satisfy our own wishes  Lack any scientific support ; dreams fulfillment  Dreams provide a “psychic safety valve” – expressing may be interpreted in many otherwise unacceptable feelings: contain manifest different ways content (remembered/censored) and a deeper layer of latent content (conflicts, worries) – a hidden meaning, such as erotic wishes ex. gun is a disguised for a penis Information-  To file away memories  But why do we sometimes dream processing  Dreams helps us sort out the day‟s events and about things we have not consolidate our memories experienced?  Link between REM sleep and memory + learning – better retained than those disturbed during REM Physiological  Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help  This does not explain why we function develop and preserve neural pathways experience meaningful dreams Neural  To make sense of neural static  The individual‟s brain is weaving activation  REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random the stories, which still tells us visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into something about the dreamer stories  Loss of inhibition and logic – “idle” frontal lobe regions  Limbic system‟s emotional tone + visual bursts = dreams Cognitive  Dreams content reflect dreamer‟s cognitive  Does not address the neuroscience development development – their knowledge and understanding of dreams  Brain maturation – child dreams differently than an adult  Top-down control of dream content Activation-  Activation = random neural activity synthesis  Synthesis = brain making „sense‟ of things theory Module 9 – Hypnosis Hypnosis – a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviours will spontaneously occur.  State of heightened suggestibility in which some people are able to experience imagined situations as if they are real Frequently Asked Questions about Hypnosis *** Hypnotists have no magical mind-control power – their power resides in the subjects‟ openness to suggestion, their ability to focus images or behaviours Questions Answers Can anyone  We are all open to suggestion, ex. “When people stand upright with their eyes closed experience hypnosis? and are told that they are swaying back and forth, most will indeed sway a little” – postural sway - People who respond to such suggestions can be under hypnosis or not  Highly hypnotizable people – typically become deeply absorbed in imaginative activities  Hypnotic ability – the ability to focus attention totally on a task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it to entertain fanciful possibilities Can hypnosis enhance  We do not encode everything that occurs around us recall of forgotten  We permanently store only some of our experiences, and we may be unable to retrieve events? some memories we have stored  Hypnotists can plant ideas in the subjects psuedomemeory, which are false memories for the subject(s) – dangerous aspect of hypnosis Can hypnosis force  Researchers have induced hypnotized people to perform dangerous acts, such as putting people to act against their hand into fuming “acid” their will?  Martin Orne and Frederich Evans: used control groups asking them to pretend they were hypnotized – uncovered illusory beliefs o Lab assistants, treated both the experimental and control group the same unaware of who was hypnotized o The control performed the same acts as the hypnotized group Can hypnosis help  Hypnotherapist try to help patients harness their own healing power people heal or relieve  Posthypnotic suggestion – a suggestions made during a hypnosis session, to be carried their pain? out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinician to help control undesired symptoms and behaviours (such as headaches, asthma, obesity etc.) o Drug, alcohol, and smoking addictions have not responses=d well to hypnosis  Hypnosis can relieve pain, as people who are suggested (hypnotized) to “feel no pain” often indeed report feeling little pain Explaining the Hypnotized State – Social Cognitive Theory vs. Dissociation Theory Hypnosis as a Social Phenomenon  People are not faking - caught up in roles, they begin to feel/behave like a “good hypnotic subject” – the more theylike and trust the hypnotist, the more they allow that person to direct their attention/ fantasies  “The hypnotist‟s ideas become the subjects” + “The subjects thoughts produce the hypnotic experiences and beahviours” - only if they think the experiment is still under way – result of people‟s expectation  If an experimenter eliminated their motivation for acting hypnotized – by stating that hypnosis reveals their “gullibility” – subjects become unresponsive o Hypnotic phenomena are an extension of normal social and cognitive processes Hypnosis as Divided Consciousness  Dissociation – a split (division) in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviours to occur simultaneously with others, ex. doodling while listening to a lecture  Other hypnosis researchers believe hypnosis is more than inducing someone to play the role of “good subject” – they believe it is a dual- process state of dissociation o Ernest Hilgard “Hidden observer”:  Hypnotic dissociation – as a vivid form of everyday mind splits – similar to typing the end of a sentence while starting a conversation  Hypnotizedperson simultaneously experiences two stream of consciousness  One stream responds to hypnotist‟s suggestion  Other stream monitors behavior but remains in backgrounds („hidden observer”)  Selective attention – hypnosis reduces brain activity in area that processes pain stimuli, but not sensory cortex that still receives raw sensory input – therefore, ex. “hypnotized people when they lower their hand into an ice bath, can dissociateunder hypnosis the pain stimuli ( of which the subject is still aware) from the emotional suffering which defines their experience of pain. The ice water therefore feels very cold – but the selective attention does not focus on the pain  Our information processing, which starts with the selective attention, is divided into simultaneous conscious and unconscious realms –we have a two-track mind Attention is divided from a Divided-consciousness theory: painful ice. How? "Hypnosis has caused Social influence theory: "The subject is so caught up in a split in awareness" the hypnotized role that she ignores the cold" Levels of Analysis for Hypnosis – Biopsychosocial approach Psychological Influence: - Focused attention - Expectations -Heightened suggestibility -Dissociation b/w normal sensations and conscious awareness Biological Influence: Socio-cultural: - Distinctive brain activity -Presence of an authoriative person in legitimate context - Unconscious information processing -Role-palying "good subject" Hypnosis Module 10 – Drugs and Consciousness  Most of us manage to use some non-prescription drugs in moderation and without disrupting our lives – but some develop self harming substance-related disorder Psychoactive drugs- a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods and other elements of conscious experience, can facilitate or inhibit synaptic transmission Agonists – (stimulants) drugs that increase neurotransmitter activity, the fit in synaptic gap and therefore can take over the role of the normal neurotransmitters yet block the reuptake process so there is an increase in neural activity Antagonists – (depressants) drugs that inhibit or decrease neurotransmitter activity as drug impairs neuron‟s ability to synthesize, store or release transmitters. Molecule may leak and degrade prematurely – drugs binds with receptor site but is not similar enough to transmitter to activate site. Blocks transmitter from activating Tolerance, Dependence, and Addiction Tolerance – the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug‟s effect  With continues use of alcohol and some other drugs (marijuana is an exception), the user‟s brain chemistry adapts to offset the drug effect – in a process called neuroadaptation, therefore user requires greater doses  Ever-increasing doses can become a serious threat to health and may lead to addiction – compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences of an addictive drug  Body attempts to maintain homeostasis as your body is trying to balance out the new substance, therefore your body is trying to get use to the drug  compensatory Responses- physiological reactions opposite of that of the drug Withdrawal – the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use  As the body responds to the drug‟s absence, the user may feel physical pain and intense cravings, indicating physical dependence – a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued (the body has been altered in ways the create cravings for the drug, ex. to end withdrawal symptoms)  Painful symptoms body readjusting to the absence of the drug – withdrawal worsens addiction because users want to resume taking the drug to end withdrawal symptoms Compensatory Responses  Physiological reactions opposite to that of drug  Brain is adjusting to body imbalances  Occurs through withdrawal as well after drug is discontinued your body is trying to readjust again Psychological dependence – a psychological need to use drug, particularly for stress-relieving drugs, such as to relieve negative emotions (person‟s resources for coping with daily life wither as a drug becomes “needed” to relax, socialize or sleep)  Such drugs may not always be psychically addictive but an important part of the user‟s life, often as a way of reliving negative emotions What is Substance Dependence? – The presence of 3 + of the following indicates dependence on a substance 1. Tolerance (with repeated use, desired effect require larger doses) 2. Withdrawal (discomfort and distress when discontinued) 3. Taking the substance longer or in greater amounts than intended 4. Failure to regulate use 5. Much time devoted to obtaining the substance 6. Normal activities abandoned or reduced 7. Continued use despite knowledge that using the substance worsens problems Learning, Tolerance & Overdose  Environment becomes associated with drug  Physical setting triggers compensatory responses  Conditioned drug responses o Tolerance for drug influenced by familiarity of drug setting o In an unfamiliar setting „overdoes‟ reaction can occur even when typical amount of drug is used, as individual is in a different environment, therefore the body reacts different – new experience Types of Psychoactive Drugs Depressants Depressants – drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions Type of Characteristics and Affects of Depressants Depressant Alcohol  In small doses alcohol is not a stimulant – it may enliven a drinker, but it is a disinhibitor o Disinhibitor – slows brain activity that controls judgment and inhibitions  It increases (disinhibits) helpful tendencies, ex. tipsy restaurant customer leaves a large tip  It increases (disinhibits) harmful tendencies, ex. when sexually aroused men become more likely to be sexually aggressive o When drinking both men and women are more disposed to casual sex – correlation b/w drinking and risky sex  Increases activity of GABA (main inhibitory neurotransmitter)  Decreases activity of glutamate (major excitatory neurotransmitter) o Combination creates „high‟ & then „down‟ phase Slowed Neural Processing – “Lowered inhibitions”  Low doses of alcohol relax the drinker by slowing the sympathetic (arousal) nervous system  Lager doses slows brain activity more = reactions slow, speech slurs, skilled performance deteriorates + paired with sleep deprivation alcohol becomes a potent sedative – “sleep pill”  Drunk-driving: as blood-alcohol levels rise, moral judgments decrease, when sober people claim that they would never drink/ drive – when intoxicated – qualms of drinking and driving lessen  Alcohol poisoning: heaving drinking follows a period of moderate drinking (which depresses the vomiting response) – poison themselves with an overdose their bodies normally would throw up Memory Disruption  Alcohol disrupts memory formation, ex. heavy drinkers may not recall people they met the night before or what they said or did while intoxicated – blackouts caused by suppression of REM sleep (which fixes the day‟s experience into permanent memories)  Heavy drinking has long-term effects on the brain and cognition o Destroys nerve cells and reduces the birth of new nerve cells o Impairs the growth of synaptic connections Alcohol dependence–(also known as alcoholism). Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal if suspended and a drive to continue  Excessive and prolonged drinking can shrink the brain, especially women are vulnerable as they have less stomach enzyme to digest alcohol o Females can be more addicted to alcohol more quickly than males even at lower consumption levels Reduced Self- Awareness and Self Control  Alcohol doubles the likelihood for one to be caught mind-wandering, yet were less likely to notice that they zoned out (example of an experiment vs. placebo study)  Produces „Myopia‟ – it focuses our attention on an arousing situation, such as a provocation (irritation/ frustration), and distracts attention from normal inhibitions and future consequences, ex. Losing a business deal, a game, or a romantic partner sometimes elicits binge drinking Expectancy Effects  Users‟ expectations influence their behavior  When people believe that the alcohol affects social behavior in certain ways, and believerightly or wrongly, that they have been drinking alcohol - they will behave accordingly o Experiment: Rutgers men – “study on alcohol and sexual stimulation” some given real alcohol and other were given placebo (both had scent of alcohol). In both groups, ½ participants thought they were drinking alcohol, other ½ thought they hadn‟t. o Result: After watching an erotic clip, the men who thought they had consumed alcohol were more likely to report having strong sexual fantasies and felt guilt-free o Conclusion: As they attributed their sexual responses to alcohol it released inhibitions – whether or not they had consumed alcohol. Alcohol effects lie partly in the powerful sex organ, the mind  Blood Alcohol Level (BAL) – Alcohol myopia – shortsightedness in thinking Barbiturates Barbiturates (or tranquilizers) – drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment, ex. Sleeping pills & Anti-anxiety drugs Nembutal, Seconal and Amytal are sometimes prescribed to induce sleep or reduce anxiety  In larger doses – can impair memory and judgment  Large doses combined with alcohol can be the “ultimate” depressant effects – lethal  Highly addictive – several months needed to loss physiological dependency Opiates Opiates – opium and its derivatives such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessen pain and anxiety + methadone (synthetic opiate used as a substitute for heroin)  Product of poppy plant  Binds to receptors activated by endorphins  Pupils constrict, breathing slows, and lethargy sets in as blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxiety  Highly addictive: a progressive need for larger doses and an extremely uncomfortable withdrawal  When dependency starts, the brain eventually stops producing endorphins, its own natural opiates – when artificial opiates are withdrawn the brain lacks the normal level of these painkiller neurotransmitters – may lead to overdoes if one cannot tolerate that state after withdrawal Stimulants Stimulants – drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine and the more powerful amphetamines, ecstasy, cocaine and method) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions. Effects include dilated pupils, increased breathing and heart rate, increase blood sugar and appetite Type of Characteristics and Affects of Stimulants Stimulant Nicotine Nicotine – a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco  Found in cigarettes and other tobacco products – each year tobacco kills nearly 5.4 million of its 1.3 billion customers worldwide  Smoking usually begins during adolescence, self-conscious and extreme need to belong are vulnerable to smoking‟s allure = gaining social reward of being accepted by other smokers o Mindful of this, cigarette companies have effectively modeled smoking with themes that appeal to youth: sophistication, independence, adventure-seeking, social approval  Highly addictive – develop dependency and tolerance + hard to quit o Quitting causes nicotine – withdrawal symptoms including craving, insomnia, anxiety, irritability and distractibility  Nicotine within 7 seconds signals the central nervous system to release a flood neurotransmitters o Epinephrine and norepinephrine: diminish appetite and boost alertness and mental efficiency o Dopamine and Opioids: calm anxiety and reduce sensitivity to pain  Each year, 1 in 7 smoker who want to quit will be able to resist usually through, sometimes aided by nicotine replacement drug and with encouragement from counselors and support groups o For those who endure, the acute craving and withdrawal symptoms gradually dissipate over the six months, after a years of abstinence only 10% relapse Cocaine  Cocaine is fast track from euphoria to crash – it is now snorted, injected or smoked  It enters the bloodstream quickly, producing a rush of euphoria that depletes the brain‟s supply of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine – after an hour crash of agitated depression follows as the drug‟s effect wears off o Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine (feels rewarding), serotonin (lifts mood), and norepinephrine (provides energy), therefore the extra neurotransmitters molecule remain in the synapse, intensifying their normal mood altering effects and producing a euphoric rush – when cocaine levels drop = crash o Many regular cocaine users chasing this high become addicted, ex. in the lab, cocaine-addicted monkeys have pressed levers more than 12, 000 times to gain one injection  Cocaine heightens reaction especially in situations that heighten aggression; cocaine use may also lead to emotional disturbances, suspiciousness, cardiac arrest, or respiratory failure Crack – chemically converted form = effects are faster, moreintense Caffeine  Pleasurable Effects = increased alertness and wakefulness  Adverse Effects = Anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia in high doses; hard withdrawal Amphetamines Amphetamines – drugs that stimulate neuralactivity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes Methamphetamine Methamphetamine – a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels (chemically related to its parent drug, amphetamines)  Triggers release of dopamine, which stimulates brain cells that enhance energy and mood = 8 hours of heightened energy and euphoria  Aftereffects = irritability, insomnia, hypertension, seizures, social isolation, depression and occasional violent outbursts  Over time, meth may reduce baseline dopamine levels, leaving the user with depressed functioning Ecstasy Ecstasy (MDMA; MethyleneDioxyMethAmphetamine) – a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer- term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition  Stimulant and a mild hallucinogen – triggers dopamine release  It‟s a major effect is releasing stored serotonin and blocking its reuptake = prolong serotonin‟s feel-good flood o 3 to 4 hours experience high energy, emotional elevation and (given a social context) connectedness with those around them (“I love everyone”)  “Club drug” taken at night clubs and all-night raves  Aftereffects = o (With prolonged dancing) – lead to severe overheating, regretted behavior, dehyradtionincreased blood pressure and death; o Long-term leaching of brain serotonin can damage serotonin producing neurons leading to permanently depressed mood o Also: suppresses the disease-fighting immune system, impairs memory, slows thought, and disrupts sleep by interfering with serotonin‟s control of circadian clock Hallucinogens Hallucinogens – psychedelic (“mind-manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input – many are derived from natural sources such as mushrooms Type of Characteristics and Affects of Hallucinogens Hallucinogens LSD LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide; also known as acid) – a powerful hallucinogens drug  Created by Albert Hofman, a chemist and one day accidentally ingested o “an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colours”  LSD trip can vary from euphoria to detachment to panic  The user‟s current mood and expectations color the emotional experience, but the perceptual distortions and hallucinations have some commonalities: we can hallucinate from drugs, loss of oxygen or extreme sensory deprivation 1. Begins with simple geometric forms, such as lattice, cobweb or spiral 2. Next phase: more meaningful images; some may be superimposed on a tunnel or funnel, others may be replays of past emotional experiences 3. As hallucinations peaks, people frequently feel separated from their body and experience dreamlike scenes so real that they may become panic-stricken or harm themselves  similar to near-death experience – an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death ( such as through cardiac c arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations  Many experience visions of tunnels, bright lights or beings of light, a replay of old memories, and out of body experiences Marijuana/THC THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) – the major ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations  Marijuana binds with brain cannabinol receptors – is a mild hallucinogen, amplifying sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes and smells – like alcohol, it disinhibits and may produce a euphoric high  Impaired motor coordination, perceptual ability and reaction time  THC accumulates in the body, increasing the effects of next use – lingers in the body for a week or more, which mean regular users need smaller doses even after tolerance increases  Over time, the brain shrinks in areas processing memory and emotion  Smoke inhalation damage as marijuana smoke is toxic like smokingcigarettes – cancer, lung problems and pregnancy complications Influences on Drug Use Psychological Influence: - Lacking sense of purpose -Significant stress -Psychological disorders, such as depression Biological Influence: Socio-cultural: - Genetic predispositions - Urban environment - Cultural attitude toward drug use -Variations in neurotransmitter system - Peer influence Drug Use Module 11 – Behaviour Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology Behaviour Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences Behaviour genetics – the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and interested in exploring the differences Genes: Our Codes for Life  Every cell nucleus in your body contains the genetic make-up (DNA) for your entire body Chromosomes – threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes  46 chromosomes – 23 donated by your mother‟s eggs + 23 donated by your father‟s sperm  This includes the X and Y chromosomes, not a matched set in males, who are missing some genes on the Y DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes Genes – the biochemical units of heredity that makes up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein  Genes can be either active (expressed) or inactive - genes are not blueprints; they are molecules  Environmental events “turn on” genes, ex. “Like hot water enabling a tea bags to express its flavor” – when turned on, genes provide the code for creating protein molecules – body‟s building blocks  Most of our traits are influenced by many genes, ex. Your height: reflects the size of your face, leg bones etc.” o Each trait may be influenced by different genes interacting with you environment o Complex traits such as intelligence, happiness, aggressiveness etc. are also influenced by groups of genes  Genes contain bases, carry codes for protein  Genotype = specific genetic makeup + present from conception + never change  Phenotype = observable characteristic (physically expressed) + Can be alter by other genes, environment, ex. how tall you “can” grow versus how tall you “actually row” Gene Knockout - Particular function of gene is eliminated by preventing neuronal response to a particular neurotransmitter - knocking out a particular gene could disrupt a wide range of functions Dominant, Recessive & Polygenic  So why aren‟t genotype and phenotype always identical  Characteristic displayed if: o Dominant gene from wither parent o Two recessive genes (one from each parent) o Polygenic transmission (multiple gene pairs influence phenotype) Genetic Engineering Recombinant DNA procedures  Enzymes cut DNA  Combined with DNA from another organism Genome – the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism‟s chromosomes  Based on research, there is a common sequence within human DNA – we share a genetic profile that makes us human, rather than chimpanzees or tulips o Genetically speaking, every other human is almost our identical twin  Difference by small percents in genetic make-up, makes a big difference which matters, ex. human share 96% of DNA sequence with chimpanzees, yet chimpanzees grunt while we use many and complex words to communicate Following cell structure in order from smallest to largest: 1. Genes 2. Chromosomes 3. Nucleus Following cell structure in order from largest to smallest: 1. Nucleus 2. Chromosomes 3. Genes Twin and Adoption Studies Identical versus Fraternal Twins Identical twins – twins who develop from a single (monozygotic) fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms – “nature‟s own human clones”  Although identical twins have the same genes, they don‟t always have the same number of copies of those genes. o Explains why one twin might be more prone at risk for certain illness  Identical twins are more similar behaviourally and often more similarly affected by their environment in the same way more than fraternal twins in personality, personality, styles of thinking and relating, abilities/intelligence scores, attitudes, interests, tastes, specific fears, brain waves and heart rate – even when reared apart Fraternal twins – twins who develop from separate (dizygotic) fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment Separated Twins  The similarity of identical twins, whether they grow up together or apart – the effect of a shared rearing environment don‟t have much effect on personality and difference – primarily heredity Biological versus Adoptive Relatives  Adoption creates tow groups: genetic relatives (biological parents and siblings) and environmental relatives (adoptive parents and siblings)  People who group up together, whether biologically related or not – don‟t resemble one another in personality o Perosnalitity is mostly biological - adoptees are more similar to their biological parents than to their care giving adoptive parents – environment doesn‟t have a large affect on personality o However, parents whether biological or not do influence their child (ren)‟s attitudes, values, manners, faith and politics – Parenting matters!  If parenting has an influence, why are siblings are so different? o Genetic difference become amplified as people react to them differently + siblings are raised in slightly different families; the youngest has more older siblings and has older (wiser? more tired?) Temperament and Heredity Temperament – (or emotional excitability) a person‟s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity, 3 general type of temperament appears in infancy: easy, difficult, and slow to warm up Reactive Infants Non-reactive Infants - Reactive, Intense, Fidgety - Easy-going, Quiet, Placid Difficult babies: are more intense, irritable, and Easy babies: are cheerful, relaxed and predictable in unpredictable feeding and sleeping Slow-to-warm-up infants: tend to resist or withdraw from new people and situations  Temperament that is seen during infancy and early childhood is often brought into adulthood The New Frontier: Molecular Genetics Molecular genetics – the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes – specific genes influencing behavior  Molecular behavior genetics‟ goal: is to find some of the many genes that together orchestrates certain traits, such as body weight or sexual orientation  Genetics test and information can reveal “at-risk” populations, such as in a family for diseases or disorders; or even before birth, screening “fetus’” for “learning disorder” o The most powerful potential for DNA is to predict risk so that steps can be taken to prevent problems before they happen  Ethical conundrum: should people use genetic tests to select sperm, eggs, and even embryos? Genetic counselors – provision of medical information about genetic disorders & risks Heritability Heritability – the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.  How much variation is attributed to genetic differences  We can never say what percentage of an individual‟s personality or intelligence or other traits is inherited, there is no clear percentage breakdown of certain genes and their affect on the individual o Heritability refers to the extent to which differences among people are attributed to genes  Heritable individual differences need not imply heritable group differences  Heritability coefficient - estimate of how much of characteristics is due to genetic Heritability vs. Environment Environment is more similar (or identical) for example Heredities very similar but were raised in drastically within a community, heredity as a source of difference different environments, hereditability as a source of becomes more important difference becomes less important Similar environment = heritability (increases) + Similar heredities = heritability (decreases) + environment „differences” (decreases) environment „differences” (increases) Reaction Range  Boundaries on the expression of a trait  Range of possibilities – upper and lower limits that the genetic code allows  Individual inherits a range for potential expression of a trait  Environmental effects determine where person falls within Gene- Environment Interaction - Interaction of Genes and Environment Interaction – the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity) Example: Imagine 2 babies, one genetically predisposed to be attractive, sociable, and easygoing, and the other less so. Assume further that the first baby attracts more affectionate and stimulating care and so develops into a warmer and more outgoing person. As the two children grow older, the more naturally outgoing child more often seeks activities and friends that encourage further social confidence.  Environment + heredity work together (environment trigger gene activity + genetically influenced traits evoke significant responses in others)  Some traits, such as the overall design of our bodies, are set by genes  Other traits, such as physical and mental abilities, develop in response to experience - adaptation  Genetic traits influence the social en
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