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PSYC 1010 Lecture Nov 15 Reinforcement, Punishment, and Social Psyc.docx

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

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PSYC 1010 Lecture, November 15, 2013 Announcements 1. Study Tips for Test 2 have been posted on moodle. 2. Undergraduate PsychologyAssociation. Benefits include free tutoring 3. URPP Dec. 23 to get credits for the fall term. Remember from last time… Positive reinforcement is adding something to encourage a behavior and negative reinforcement is taking something away to encourage a behavior. Negative does NOT mean ‘bad’, it means something is being taken away. Negative reinforcement: Something unpleasant is removed. This will increase the probability of a response. Examples: 1. In order to have more students come to class, a professor cuts 30 minutes worth of material out of her lecture. 2. To stop the sound of the annoying beep your car makes when you don’t wear you seat belt, you put your seat belt on. Positive punishment: Something unpleasant is added in order to stop a behavior from happening. Examples: 1.Apolice officer gives you a speeding ticket to stop you from speeding in the future. 2. Achild swears so the parent puts soap put in his mouth so he will not swear again. Negative punishment: Something pleasant is removed in order to stop a behavior from happening. Examples: 1.Achild who is misbehaving is told to sit in his room by himself (removing interactions with others) in order to stop the child from misbehaving. 2. Ahigh school student who vandalizes school property is banned from the prom. Many researchers have found that punishment often does not help people to learn to behave in a more pro-social away. Instead, people might learn to not perform certain behaviors in front of certain people but still perform this in other contexts. Example: 1. a child who is spanked by his mom when at home will behave when around his mom but act out when he is at school. 2. Aworker who gets suspended for yelling at his boss might yell at his partner when he is home instead. Considerations 1. Punishment should be immediate. 2. Punishment should be consistent. 3. Modeling behavior is very important. If you are a parent and tell your child not to hit or yell at others, but you hit and yell at your child, she will learn from observing you that hitting or yelling is the best way to deal with conflict. (Think of actions speaking louder than words.) 4. Harsh punishment usually does not work. Alternatives 1. Reinforcement. Reinforcement is more powerful than punishment. Example: Praising a toddler when he uses the potty is more effective than yelling at him if he pees in his pants. 2. Ignore the unwanted behavior. Sometimes it is best not to react to behaviors. Sometimes getting any type of a reaction or attention is reinforcing to a child. Example: Ignoring your child if they throw a temper tantrum in a store when they can’t get a chocolate bar. * Remember, there are examples on Moodle that you check out! Social Behaviour and Social Psychology (Modules 43-46) Studying behaviour within the context of a group (2 or more people interacting) Social Cognition: The study of how we perceive and evaluate others. Example include: • How we make attributions: trying to determine the cause of other people’s behavior. • Romantic relationships • Prejudice, stereotypes Today, we are talking about… Social influence: how we influence each other’s behaviours and attitudes. Compliance: You are complying to a request. Obedience: Doing what an authority figure tells you to do. Conformity: Adjusting your behaviour or thinking to coincide with a group standard. Milgram’s Obedience Studies Milgram was baffled over how people could obey Hitler’s orders during World War II. What lead Germans to obey Hitler? For his study, Milgram got volunteers for a study on “learning” (as he told the participants). The “teacher” (the person who was volunteering) was brought out into a room and was instructed to deliver a list of words to the learner. The teacher was told by the researcher that if the learner screwed up, we would have to shock to the learner. Every time the learner screwed up, the teacher was told to deliver a higher voltage shock. The researcher told the teacher that they absolutely had to comply to comply, and continue to shock the learner. The researcher told the learner that the volts would be very painful, but would not deliver tissue damage. What the teacher didn’t know, was that the learner wasn’t getting shocked, and was actually an actor. Different Conditions First condition: in one room the learner would not speak or scream, but would pound on the wall when the electricity would increase. 65% of the teachers would listen to the researcher and shock all of the way. Second condition: the teacher can hear the learner. The learner screams “stop, I have a heart condition!” Then, stops speaking at all. Even though this happened, the researcher told the teacher that they had to shock all the way. 62.5% of the teachers would listen to the researcher and shock all of the way. Third condition (taking into consideration proximity): in this scenario, the learner was right beside the teacher. 40% of the teachers shocked all the way. Fourth condition (taking into consideration touch): in this scenario, the learner and teacher were touching. 30% of the teachers shocked all the way. Fifth condition: No contact between teacher and learner whatsoever: 100% of the participants shocked all of the way. Sixth condition: When the researcher (the authority figure) was not in the room, 22% of the teachers shocked al
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