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PSYC1010 - TEST 2.pdf

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

York SOS: Students Offering Support PSYC1010 TEST 2 STUDY PACKAGE Package Created by: Yifeng Lu, Dallas Weaver, Marietta Cini, Jessie Zhang, Anum Aziz Exam-AID Tutor: Frederyck Franco & Anum Aziz Raisinwww.yorksos.comg Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support Preface This document was created by the York University chapter of Students Offering Support (York SOS) to accompany our PSYC1010 Exam-AID session. It is intended for students enrolled in Professor Jubis’s sections of 2012/2013 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY – PSYC1010 course who are looking for an additional resource to assist their studies in preparation for the exam. Please do NOT share this with other students and instead tell them about the session or to contact York SOS to make a donation to get a copy of it. ([email protected]) References th Myers, David G. (2012). Psychology 10 Edition in Modules. New York, NY: Worth Publishers. Tips for General Midterm Success Use mnemonics to remember concepts better. An example of a mnemonic would be acronyms. Do practice multiple choice questions. Doing these practice questions can assess your understanding of what you have learned and can help you identify areas of weakness. Practice multiple choice questions are found in textbooks, on textbook companion websites, and/or provided by your professor. Read a multiple choice question and try to answer it BEFORE looking at the possible answers. Having an answer in mind before looking at possible answers can reduce the chances of being fooled by wrong answers. Use logic and process of elimination on multiple choice questions. For example, if you know that answer A is wrong, then logically an answer “A and B are correct” in the same question must also be incorrect. When you don ‟t know the answer, eliminating wronganswers (as opposed to just random guessing) can increase your chances of getting the question right. Practice writing answers to short answer questions. If you know ahead of time what the questions will be on the short answer section, make a list of essential points you want to include in each answer and practice writing the answer on paper. If you don’t know what questions will be on the short answer section, you could try scanning the material to identify concepts that have enough content to be a possible short answer question. Again, you can make a list of essential points you want to include in each answer and practice writing the answer on paper. Even if the question you thought of doesn’ t show up on the short answer section, doing this can help solidify what you learned. Don’t spend too much time on a difficult question. It is better to move onto easier questions to ensure getting those marks than to get hung up on a difficult question, especially when time is limited. Get adequate sleep the night before your test. Sleeping at night helps consolidate what you learned during the day into memory so that it is better remembered in future. Not only does staying up late the night before a test destroy your concentration during the test the next day, but your brain has not effectively learned the material. Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support What is Students Offering Support? Students Offering Support is a national network of student volunteers working together to raise funds to raise the quality of education and life for those in developing nations throughraising marks of our fellow University students. This is accomplished through our Exam-AID initiative where student volunteers rungroup review sessions prior to a midterm or final exam for a $20 donation. All of the money raised through SOS Exam-AIDs is funneled directly into sustainable educational projects in developing nations. Not only does SOS fund these projects, but SOS volunteers help build the projects on annual volunteer trips coordinated by each University chapter. Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support LEARNING : MODULE 20 Basic Learning Concepts and ClassicalConditioning - Learning:process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviours o Helps us adapt to environments o Helps us prepare for significant events such as food or pain - We typically learn to repeat acts that bring us rewards and avoid acts that bring unwanted results - We learn things we have never experienced through observation of events and of other people, as well as language - Locke and Hume we learn by association o Associative learning:learning that certain events occur together. The events might be two stimuli or a response and its consequence. o Example: Smelling freshly baked bread and after eating some, finding it tasty. The next time you smell freshly baked bread, you will expect it to be tasty. o Associative learning can be subtle  Example: Give someone a red pen instead of a black one to edit an essay and they will spot more errors and give more critical grades. o Associations also feed our habits  Example: sleeping in a certain position every night because it was comfortable at several occasions - Stimulus:any event or situation that evokes a response - Cognitive Learning: acquiring mental information that guides our behaviour o Example: Monkeys sometimes learn behaviours just by watching others do them. Classical Conditioning - Pavlov researched the idea of classical conditioning o Classical Conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events - Watson  based on Pavlov’s work, he explored the idea of behaviourism o Behaviourism:the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behaviour without reference to mental processes (inner thoughts/feelings/motives)  Most psychologists agree with (1) but not (2) What did Watson do? - Watson experimented on phobias: “Little Albert” o He presented baby Albert with a white mouse o Then he had someone make a loud sound every time the mouse was shown to Albert o Albert’s startling response was paired with the mouse’s appearance o Now whenever Albert saw the mouse, he cried and showed fear Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support o Thus, Watson used conditioning to create phobias  In this experiment: • US = loud noise • UR = fear response • NS = mouse before it was paired with the noise • CS = the mouse after being paired with the noise • CR = the mouse Pavlov’s Experiments Before Conditioning: - Dog is given food and he starts to salivate (a respondent behaviour). This is an unconditioned stimulus (US)creating an unconditioned response (UR). o Eventually the dog starts salivating not just when given food, but at the sight of food, or the food dish, or the person delivering the food. - Then Pavlov sounded a tone which did not make the dog salivate like the food had. This is a neutral stimulus (NS)creating no response. During Conditioning: - The US (food) is repeatedly presented immediately after the NS (tone). The US (food) continues to create the UR (salivation). After Conditioning: - Playing the tone used to be neutral, but now when it is played the dog salivates. This means that the NS (tone) is creating a conditioned response (CR); therefore it has now become a conditioned stimulus (CS). * Conditioned = learned* Recap of important terms: Respondent behaviour:behaviour that happens as an automatic response to some stimulus Unconditioned stimulus(US): something (in Pavlov’s study, food) that naturally and automatically triggers an unconditioned response Unconditioned response(UR): this is an unlearned and naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus (salivation) Neutral stimulus(NS): something that brings out no response before conditioning (the tone) Conditioned response(CR): a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (salivation after conditioning) Conditioned stimulus(CS): an originally irrelevant stimulus (tone) that after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus (food) starts creating a conditioned response (salivation) **USURNSCRCS** 5 Major Conditioning Processes (Pavlov) Acquisition:the initial stage, when one links a NS and a US so that the NS starts triggering the CR. o In other words, when the tone and food were repeatedly paired together and reached a point where the tone started creating salvation. Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support - Experiments have shown that stimuli can be conditioned to create sexual arousal - Conditioning helps an animal survive and reproduce –by responding to cues that help it gain food, avoid dangers, locate mates, and produce offspring - Higher-order conditioning: procedure in which the CS in one conditioning experience is paired with a new NS, creating another (most likely weaker) CS. o Example: The dog has learned that a tone predicts food. Now if the tone is paired with a light, eventually he will learn that the light predicts the tone and may start responding (salivating) to the light alone. o Also called second-order conditioning Extinction: the diminishing CR, happens when a US does not follow a CS o In other words, if the tone sounded again and again, but no food appeared, the dog would salivate less and less as a reaction. Spontaneous recovery:the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished CR o In other words, after extinction Pavlov sounded the tone again and the dog would begin salivating despite the delay. o This process suggests that extinction suppresses the CR rather than eliminating it Generalization:the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the CS to trigger similar responses - After being conditioned to the sound of the tone, Pavlov noticed that the dog also responded somewhat to the sound of a new, different tone - He tested this behaviour by attaching small vibrators to various parts of the dog’s body. After conditioning the dog to salivate to stimulation on the thigh, Pavlov stimulated other areas. The closer the simulated spot was to the thigh, the stronger the CR. Discrimination:the learned ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and irrelevant stimuli - Pavlov’s dog learned to respond to the particular tone that Pavlov used, and not just any other tone. - Example: If you come face to face with a guard dog, your heart might race. This probably wouldn’t be the case if you met a guide dog. What can we use Classical Conditioning for?Aversion Training • First give a person a pill that creates nausea • Then pair that pill with a drink of alcohol • The nausea caused by both pill and drug will be linked • Thus, the sight, smell, or even taste of alcohol will trigger nausea Pavlov’s view of contiguity - Contiguity in classical conditioning occurs when the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) occur together in time and space and become associated • 2 things to remember: 1) In order for classical conditioning to be possible, CS and US must be contiguous, and; 2) If any CS and US are contiguous, there will be classical conditioning. - Example: Garcia et al., did a study on taste aversion in rats Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support o Took x-rays of rats which caused them to be nauseous X- Rays = US Nausea = UR o Before the x-rays the rats had drank a sugar solution o Now the smell or taste of the solution caused nausea making the sugar solution a CS and the nausea its CR o But there was a 7 hour time lapse between the rats drinking the solution and being x- rayed so those two things cannot be contiguous - So then why were they connected? o Predictions included that maybe we have the tendency to link nausea to the last thing we ate o This was Garcia et al., did another experiment o This time they exposed the rats to water+light+noise and then the x-rays  Results: Water = nausea, but light and noise did not  Why??  Prediction: we link nausea with what we have consumed (which goes back to the idea of learning from observations and experience) Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support Learning: Module 21 Two forms of associative learning: • Classical conditioning– associations between stimuli (a conditioned stimulus, or CS, and the unconditioned stimulus, or US, it signals). It also involves respondent behavior– actionsthat are automatic responses to a stimulus • Operant conditioning –association of organismsown actions with consequences o If an action is reinforced, then it increases o If punished, action decreases o Operant behavior - behaviorthat operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli Skinner’s Experiments • Law of effect –ewarded behavior is likely to recur • Developed a behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control • Operant chamber (i.e. Skinner Box) – which has a lever that an animal presses to release a reward of food or water; these responses are recorded by a device – animals act out the concept of reinforcement– any event that increases the frequency of a proceeding response • Shaping Behavior o Shaping – gradually guiding the action of an organism (i.e. animal/person) toward the desired behavior– example: shape a hungry rat to press a bar; process:  Watch howthe rat naturally behaves– to build on existing behavior  Give the rat a bit of food each time it approaches the bar  Once it is approaching regularly, give food only when it moves closer to the bar  Require it to touch the bar to get food o This procedure is called successive approximations –rewarding responses that are ever closer to the final desired behavior o Discriminative stimulus – a signal that a response will be reinforced Types of Reinforcers • Positive reinforcement – strengthensa response by presenting a reward (pleasurable stimulus) o Example – give treat to a dog every time it responds to your high-fives • Negative reinforcement – strengthens a response by reducing or removing something negative o Example – we fasten our seatbelt in our car to end the system from beeping annoying sounds; annoying sound is the aversive event in this case o Note: negative reinforcement is not a punishment– it REMOVES a punishment remember! • There are times when the two meet, consider: o A student did badly on their last psychology testbecause they did not study enough. He is very worried (aversive event). Then he attends a SOS Exam-Aid session (yay!) to help study for hisnext test and does better this time. The action of attending a SOS Exam-Aid Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support session is a negative reinforcer because it removed the feeling of being worried and positively reinforced by a better grade (we hope to see you next time!). • Primary and conditioned reinforcer o Primary reinforce– gettingfood when you are hungry –innate satisfying  Unlearned o Conditionedreinforcer (secondary reinforcer) – get their power through learned association with primary reinforcer  E.g. – We need to eat to survive (primary), we need to get money (conditioned) to buy food so we are not hungry, so we work hard to get money • Immediate and Delayed Reinforcers o Consider this scenario:  A rat is hungry. It’s scratching, sniffling in his cage. These are unwanted behavior because it’s supposed to get food after it turns on the light. “Turn on the light” is the actual wanted behavior you are tryingto train. However, you give it food immediately after those ‘unwanted’ behavior,it will continue to repeat them because it has learned that these are what get it the food.  NOW – the rat accidentally turns on the light but you failed to provide it food (!), if this delay is longer than 30 seconds, the rat will not learn to turn on the light in order to get food (opps).  As a result – animals do not respond to delayed reinforcer –you’ll need to wait for it to accidentally press the light again and reinforce it then. o Humans DO respond to delayed responses –such as a good grade at the end of term after a long term of hard work  However, sometimes small immediate responses still are more attractive than the big but delayed consequences –such as streaming Gossip Girls (or a football game) online into the late night hours, not sleeping, and not being fully awake for an exam the next day (we hope that never happens). • Reinforcement schedule o Reinforcement schedule is a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced o Continuous reinforcement– reinforcing the desired response every time itoccurs  Learning happens quickly –but same goes for extinction • if you no longer provide food to the poor hungry rat after it presses the bar, it will stop pressing the bar soon o Partial (intermittent) reinforcement –reinforcing a response only part of the time, results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement  Gamblers continue to gamble because they get lucky some times.  If you want to teach a child to say “thank you” after someone opens the door for him in public, reward him unexpectedly – whena child doesn’t know when Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support to expect a reward, he’ll persist on saying “thank you” after someone opens the door for him because he thinks he’ll get a reward some time o Fixed ratio schedules– reinforce behavior after a set number of responses  Some bubble tea shops provide reward card –get 20 drinks (recorded with stamps on the card) –then you get the 21 free. o Variable ratio scheduling –reinforces after a seemingly unpredictable numberof responses  Gamblers and their slot machines provide best example  Reinforcers increase as the number of responses increase – high rates of responding o Fixed interval schedules –reinforce the first response after a fixed time period  We check more of our mail boxes as delivery date approaches  Respondmore frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near o Variable interval schedules– reinforce the first response after varying time intervals  Slow and steady responding –not knowing when the waiting (ie. For a facebook message) will end o Generally  Response rates of a ratio schedule is higher than an interval schedule  Response is more consistent for a variable schedule than a fixed schedule • Punishment o Punishment does the opposite of increase behavior –they decrease!  E.g. the poor rat is shocked after touching a certain object o Parenting implications  Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten  Punishment teaches discrimination among situations • Discrimination occurs when an organism learns that certain responses, but not others, will be reinforced  Punishment can teach fear  Physical punishment may increase aggression bymodeling aggression as a way to cope with problems o Positive punishment –administer an aversive stimulus  Give a traffic ticket for speeding o Negative punishment –withdraw a rewarding stimulus  Take away a teen’s driving privileges for allowing his friend drive the family car Punishmenttells you what not to do; reinforcements tell you what to do. • “clean up your room or no dinner!(angry face)” vs. “join us at dinner after you clean up your room ” Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support Application of Operant Conditioning • At school o Teacher A – gives whole class the same lesson not distinguishing between brighter and slower students receive concepts at different rates o Teacher B – pacesthe material according to each student’s rate of learning and provides prompt feedback with positive reinforcement to both slow and fast learners  Interactive learning software – closer to Teacher B • In Sports o Reinforce small successes then gradually increase challenge • At Work o Have employees become owners of the company to share its rewards and risks o Reward specific, achievable behavior, not vaguely defined ‘merit’ o Should be immediate, but not necessarily material • At home o Parenting should remember – notice people doing something right and affirm them for it  Give children attention and other reinforcers when they are behaving well  If they misbehave, don’t yell at them but explain the misbehavior o For ourselves – to reinforce your own desired behavior  State your goal in measurable terms and announce it  Monitor how often you engage in your desired behavior  Reinforce the desired behavior  Reduce the reward gradually Contrasting classical and operant conditioning • Review page 296 for comparison chart Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support LEARNING: MODULE 22 Effects of Biologyand Cognition, and Learning by Observation Learning is a productof : - Biological influences: o Genetics o Unconditioned responses o Adaptive responses - Psychological influences: o Previous experience o Predictability of associations o Generalization o Discrimination - Socio-cultural influences: o Culturally learned preferences o Motivation, affected by presence of others Limits on Classical Conditioning - Animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology - John Garciataste aversion o If you become violently ill after eating shrimp, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of shrimp but not the sight of it, the restaurant, the people you were with, etc. o Our body prepares us to learn taste aversion to toxic foods o Supports Darwin’s idea of natural selection; that we have the tendency to make decisions that aid our survival - Our tendency to learn behaviours that are favoured by natural selection might explain why we associate the colour red with sexuality Limits on Operant Conditioning - Nature sets limits on someone’s capacity for operant conditioning - We learn and retain behaviours that reflect our biological predispositions o Using food as a reinforcer is effective if the behaviour you’re trying to condition is associated with hunger, but probably not if you’re trying to teach something completely unrelated Cognitive Processes and Classical Conditioning - Pavlov and Watson underestimated the importance not only of biological constraints on learning, but also cognitive processes (thoughts, expectations, perceptions) Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support - Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language o Example: researchers classically conditioned attitudes of adults by making them watch a video with a stream of words and Pokémon characters.  Then they were told to respond to one Pokémon by pressing a button  The participants didn’t know that each Pokémon was associated with either positive or negative words  Without having conscious memory of the pairings participants had a gut- reaction to choose those Pokémon that were linked to positive words Cognitive Processes and Operant Conditioning - Skinner admitted to the influence of biology and cognition on conditioning, but he was criticized for not giving them importance - Studying rats in mazes o Rats exploring a maze, given no obvious rewards, developed a cognitive map o Cognitive map:mental representation of the layout of one’s environment o When the researcher places food in the maze’s goal box, the rats run through the maze as quickly and efficiently as those rats who had been given rewards to achieve the same result o Shows that the rats experienced latent learning during their earlier runs o Latent learning: learning that occurs but isn’t apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it o There is more to learning than simply associating a response with a consequence; there is also cognition - Cognition also shows that there are limits to rewards o Promising people rewards for a task can backfire o Excessive rewards can destroy intrinsic motivation o Intrinsic motivation:desire to perform a behaviour effectively for its own sake o Extrinsic motivation: desire to perform a behaviour to receive promising rewards or avoid threatened punishment  Example: Think of yourself taking PSYC 1010. Are you feeling pressure to get a certain grade or worried about deadlines and other course work? If Yes, then you’re experiencing extrinsic motivation. Are you also finding the material interesting and is learning making you feel more confident? If Yes then you’re also experiencing intrinsic motivation Learning by Observation - Observational learning:learning by observing others - Modeling:process of observing and imitating a specific behaviour - Albert Bandura did the Bobo doll experiment on observational learning o A child works on a drawing and an adult in another part of the room is playing with a toy. Then the adult gets up and goes to a Bobo doll in the room. Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support o The adult pounds, kicks, and yells at the doll for 10 minutes with the child watching. o Then the child istaken to another room with appealing toys. The researcher tells the child that he has to save these toys for the other children o Then the child is taken to a third room with a few toys and a Bobo doll o Compared to the children who were not exposed to the adult’s behaviour, those who were exposed were more likely to lash out at the doll o By watching a model, we experience vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment and we learn to anticipate the consequences of a behaviour in situations similar to what we have observed Mirrors and Imitation in the Brain - Mirror neurons:frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another person doing so o The brain’s mirroring of another person’s action may enable imitation and empathy o Example: Monkey A watched Monkey B touch 4 images on a screen in a certain order to get a banana. Monkey A learned to imitate that order even when the same pictures were shown in a different sequence o This mirroring effect makes emotions contagious o Brain activity underlies our intensely social nature as humans Applications of Observational Learning - Prosocial models can have positive and constructive effects as opposed to antisocial models which can have negative effects - These could befound in things like media in addition to interactions with others Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: MODULE 43 Social Thinking Fundamental Attribution Error - Fritz Heider proposed attribution theory - Attribution theory: we can explain someone’s behaviour by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition (stable character traits) - Example: Jenny is really quiet at parties and Lydia is really loud in class discussions. So we assume that Jenny is shy and Lydia is outgoing, but we might be wrong. We’re focusing on their personalities and ignoring the situations. - Fundamental Attribution Error(FAE): when (during observation) we underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of a person’s personality - Napolitan and Goethals did experiment with college students o They had students talk one at a time with a young woman who either acted cold/critical or warm/friendly o Before the talks, the researchers told half the students that the woman’s behaviour would be spontaneous and told the other half the truth (that she was acting) o Results showed that even knowing the truth did not change the students’ impression of the woman. If she was critical they decided she was cold and if she was friendly they decided she was warm o They assumed her behaviour was “dispositional” even when told it was “situational” - FAE in some cultures more than others o Individualists in the west give more credit to people’s dispositions o East Asians are more likely to give credit to the situation o Example: an experiment was done when people were shown a scene of a big fish swimming. Americans focused on the fish itself and Japanese people focused on the whole scene - The way we explain other people’s actions, whether we pin it on personality or situation, can have real-life effects o Example: People must decide if a person’s friendliness is romance or not  Jury must decide whether a shooting was intended or in self-defence  Voter must decide if candidate’s promises will be kept or forgotten - Social & economic effects of FAE o In Britain, India, Australia, and America conservatives put blame on the personal dispositions of the poor/unemployed  “People get what they deserve”, “If you don’t work you’re a freeloader” o Liberals more likely to blame past and present situations  “If you lived in the same poor condition with lack of education and discrimination, would you be better off?”  To understand terrorism, consider the situations that breed terrorists Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support - Our attributions, whether it’s to disposition or situation, have real consequences Attitudes and Actions - Attitudes:feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to have a certain response to people, things, and events - Attitudes Affect Actions o Example: The public’s attitudes towards issues, such as global warming, affect public policies. Therefore, people on both sides want to persuade the public towards their side. - Two forms of persuasion: o Peripheral route persuasion: when people are influenced by incidental cues like the speaker’s attractiveness  Doesn’t allow for systemic thinking.  Examples: celebrity endorsements, perfume adds with images of beautiful people o Central route persuasion: when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favourable thoughts  Offers evidence and arguments that trigger constructive thinking. Happens when people are naturally analytical or involved in the issue  Examples: Environmental advocates show evidence of rising temperatures/melting glaciers and because it’s thoughtful and not superficial, it’s more likely to influence our behaviour - Those that try to persuade are trying to influence our behaviour by changing our attitudes but other factors, like situation, also influence behaviour o Example: Strong social pressures can weaken attitude-behaviour connection - Actions affect Attitudes o Example: not only will people stand up for what they believe in, but they will also believe more strongly in what they stood up for - Foot-in-door technique:tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request, to comply to a bigger request later o In other words,to get people to agree with a big demand, start small and build up - Moral actions strengthens moral convictions Role Playing Affects Attitudes - When you take on a new role (student, spouse, accountant, etc.) you strive to follow social prescriptions o At first, your actions may feel fake because you’re acting the role (Newlyweds feeling like they’re “playing house”) o But eventually, that life becomes you - Philip Zimbardo did experiment to test this in which male college students spent time in a simulated prison Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support o Randomly assigned some students to be guards. He gave them uniforms, clubs, whistles, and told them to enforce certain rules o The others were prisoners, locked in cells and forced to wear humiliating outfits o For the first couple of days, the students “played” their roles. Then the simulation became too real. o Most of the guards developed critical attitudes, some devised cruel and degrading routines o One by one, the prisoners broke down, rebelled, or became submissive o After only six days, Zimbardo had to call off the study. - Role playing can train torturers - What we do, we eventually become. Cognitive Dissonance: Relief from Tension - Why do actions affect attitudes? - Cognitive Dissonance Theory: We act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent with each other o Example: when we realize that our actions and attitudes clash, we reduce the discomfort we feel by changing our attitudes to match our actions. o Example: American attitudes towards the invasion of Iraq  When the war started, the reason was to uncover weapons of mass destruction. Would the war be justified if Iraq had no such weapons? 38% of Americans said it would be, and almost 80% believed that Iraq did have the weapons.  When no weapons of mass destruction were found, many Americans felt dissonance which increased even more when they realized the war cost them financial and human losses, and a bad reputation.  To decrease this dissonance, some people altered their memories of the reason for the invasion. It became a movement to liberate the Iraqi people and promote democracy.  Eventually, more Americans said they supported the war regardless of not finding any weapons of mass destruction. - We cannot directly control all our feelings, but we can influence them by changing our behaviour. - If you feel sad, you can talk in a more positive, self-accepting way to feel better - Cruel actions and acts of good wiboth shape you. Changing our behaviour can change how we think about others and how we feel about ourselves. Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: MODULE 44 Social Influence Automatic Mimicry - Human behaviour is contagious o Example: If one person yawns, soon enough so does another. We also take on emotional tones (or the mood) of those around us - Chartrand and Bargh  researched the chameleon effect o Had students work in a room with another person who was actually a confederate working with the researchers o At times the confederate would rub their face or shake their foot. Eventually the student began to imitate this behaviour - Another study has found that people alter their grammar to match what they’re reading or hearing - On a bigger scheme, things like obesity, drug use, loneliness,and happiness spreads through social networks - Automatic mimicry helps us empathize (feel what others are feeling) o This is why we feel happier around happy people or sadder around sad people o Studies have shown “mood linkage” (sharing up and down moods) in groups of nurses and accountants o Empathetic people tend to get fondness and liking from other people - Mimicry can sometimes lead to tragedy o Example: Following the Columbine High School shooting, almost every US state experienced threats of copycat violence o Phillips et al  found that sometimes number of suicides increase after a highly- publicized suicide occurs Conformity and Social Norms - Conformity:aligning our behaviour or thinking with a group standard - Asch  devised a test to study conformity o Participant believes that the test is on visual perception and sits at a table with five other people. The experimenter asks each person, one by one, to say which of three comparison lines is identical to a standard line. o Participant clearly sees that the answer is 2 and waits their turn to say so. Boredom sets in as the next set of lines is just as easy. o At the third set, the answer seems just as easy, but the first person gives the wrong answer. When the rest of the people give the same wrong answer, the participant sits up straighter and squints and heart rate increases. Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support o When it is the participant’s turn, they are tense and unsure due to the unanimous wrong answer by the others and the evidence in front of their eyes. They hesitate before answering o Results show that college students answering alone make fewer errors and although most told the truth instead of conforming, one-third went along with the group. - Studies like Asch’s have shown that we are more likely to conform when we: o Feel incompetent or insecure o Are in a group of at least 3 people o Are in a group where everyone agrees o Admire the group’s status o Have not already given any response o Know that others in the group will watch our behaviour o Are from a culture that emphasizes respect for social standards - Generally, people conform to avoid rejection and gain social approval o Normative social influence: influence resulting from a person’s desire to get approval or avoid disapproval o We are sensitive to social norms (understood rules for accepted/expected behaviour) because being different is risky. We need to belong. - We also conform because we want to be accurate o When we accept another person’s opinion about reality, we are responding to informational social influence o Informational social influence:influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept other people’s opinions about reality o Sometimes it’s good to assume others are right and follow their lead.  Example: Rebecca Denton, set a record for the furthest distance driven on the wrong side of the British highway until she ran out of roadway and police punctured her tires. She explained that she thought all the other drivers were coming at her on the wrong side of the road. - Whether conformity is good or bad partly depends on our cultural influences o Western Europeans and in most English-speaking countries, individualism is prized o Group standards are honored more in Asian, African, and Latin American countries o A study across 17 countries shows that conformity rates are lower in individualist cultures Obedience: Following Orders - Stanley Milgram did experiments to study obedience o You participate in a study on the effect of punishment on learning. You and another person are asked to pick from a hat to decide who will be the “teacher” and who will be the “learner”. You draw “teacher” and are asked to sit in front of a machine that has a set of labeled switches. Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support o The other person, who seems mild-mannered, is led to a connected room and strapped to a chair. From the chair, wires run through the wall to your machine. o Your task is to teach then test the learner on a list of word pairs. If the learner gives the wrong answer, you have to flip a switch to deliver a brief electrical shock. For the first wrong answer, you will use the “slight shock” switch. With each error you move along the switches increasing in voltage. o You do the experiment and at the third, fourth, and fifth switches you hear the learner grunt. After you do the eighth switch (moderate shock), the learner cries out that the shocks are painful. After the tenth (strong shock), he begins shouting to get him out of there and that he refuses to continue. o You stop, but the moderator insists that the experiment must continue. You resist but they say “It is absolutely essential that you continue” or “You have no choice, you must go on.” o If you obey, the learner shrieks in agony and after the 330-volt level, he falls silent. Still, the moderator encourages you to continue and give shocks when no answer is given. o In a survey before the experiment, Milgram asked at what level a person would refuse to obey. Most people were sure they would stop when the learner first indicates pain. However, more than 60% of people went all the way up to the last switch. - Burger replicated Milgram’s studies in 2009. o 70% of participants obeyed up to 150 volts, a slight decrease from Milgram’s result - Milgram’s results are gender neutral; both women and men show similar responses - Also, the “teachers” did not figure out that they were being tested on their level of obedience to cause punishment or that the learner was pretending to be in pain. The teachers felt genuine distress. - Milgram’s use of deception and stress started a debate over his ethics, but he argued that after finding out the actualresearch purpose, almost no participant regretted taking part. - He later found some things that influence people’s behaviour and obedience is highest when: o The person giving the orders was close at hand and perceived to be a legitimate authority figure o The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution (people more likely to obey if the experiment was associated with Yale University than not) o The victim was depersonalized or at a distance, even in another room (soldiers more likely to fire whenthey can’t see the enemy than those who can) o There were no role models for defiance (teachers did not see any other participant disobey the moderator) - An example of the power of close-at-hand, legitimate authority figures is during the Holocaust when commanders ordered their soldiers to shoot innocent villagers and the orders were followed due to obedience So what do Asch’s and Milgram’s studies teach us? - Strong social influences can make people conform to falsehoods or capitulate cruelty Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support - By focusing on anact of violence or deceit, we ignore how they eventually got there - Milgram did not ask his participants to zap the learners with high voltage immediately. Instead, he used the foot-in-door technique (beginning small and gradually escalating his demands).That way, the small action of flipping a switch became justified and that made flipping the next switch more tolerable. - Greater evils grow out of people’s compliance to lesser evils Group Behaviour - Normal Triplett  studied how others’ presence affects ourbehaviour o Example: kids more likely to wind a fishing reel faster in the presence of someone doing the same thing o Social facilitation: stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others - However, when doing tougher tasks (like solving complex math problems) people perform worse when they’re around others doing the same thing. - Presence of others sometimes helps and sometimes hinders performance o When others watch us, we become aroused, and this arousal amplifies our other reactions o It strengthens our most likely response (the correct one on an easy task and the incorrect one on a difficult task)  Example: Expert pool players who made 71% of their shots when alone made 80% when people came to watch them. Poor pool players who made 36% of their shots when alone only made 25% when they were being watched.  Example: Hometown advantage in sports. Enthusiastic crowds have energizing effects - What you do well, you are more likely to do better in front of an audience, especially a friendly one. What you find difficult may seem almost impossible when you’re being watched. - Social loafing: the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts towards a common goal than when working at it individually o Example: whenblindfolded people were seated in a group they clapped and shouted as loud as they could when they heard other people clapping and shouting through headphones. When they thought they were alone, they were less likely to be as loud - Latané et al  did experiments on social loafing in the U.S and Asian countries o More common in men of individualistic cultures - Three things cause social loafing: o People acting as part of a group feel less accountable so they worry less about what others think o Group members may view their individual contributions as dispensable o When group members share equally in the benefits, regardless of how much they contribute, some may slack off - Sometimes the presence of other does both social facilitation and social loafing Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support o Deindividuation:the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity o Example: London riots in 2011. Rioters had social arousal and anonymity by the darkness and hoods o Example: Internet trolling. People who would never say “You’re a fraud” to someone’s face will do it online and hide behind anonymity. - The beliefs and attitudes we bring to a group grow stronger as we discuss them with like- minded people - Group Polarization: The enhancement of a group’s main ideals through discussion within the group - Can have benefits or consequences - Example: When high-prejudice students discussed racial issues they became even more prejudiced and when low-prejudiced students did, they became even more accepting - Example: Suicide terrorism, begins slowly among people who share grievance and eventually categorize the world as “us” against “them” o Example: The Internet. It’s bad in the way it isolates certain groups with specific perspectives yet good because it connects different people through social networking - By linking and magnifying the inclinations of like-minded people, the Internet can be very bad, but also very good. - Irving Janis  studied decision-making process procedures leading to the ill-fated invasion of America into Cuba during the “Bay of Pigs fiasco” (US invaded Cuba with trained Cuban exiles who were then of course easily captured) o Found that the high morale of recently elected President John F. Kennedy created undue confidence. To preserve this good feeling, group members suppressed their opinions and did not speak against the decision which made everyone believe that support was unanimous. o Groupthink: the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisalof alternatives o Groupthink can be bad (contributing to other major fiascos in history like escalation of Vietnam war) or good (in business world) - There is power in groups, but also power in individuals - Social control (power of the situation) and personalcontrol (power of individual) interact and when being pressured we may react by asserting our sense of freedom - People who are committed can sway the majority and make social history (ex: Rosa Parks) - Minority influence: the power of one or two individualsto sway majorities Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: MODULE 45 Antisocial Relations Prejudice:an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude towards a group and its members - Generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative emotions, and a predisposition to discriminate Stereotype:generalized (sometimes accurate, but over generalized) belief about a group of people Discrimination: unjustifiable negative behaviour towards a group of people and its member - To measure prejudice we can observe what people say or do - Support for things like interracial dating and women receiving the same pay as men for the same job has increased over the years - Overt prejudice (the obvious kind) has decreased but subtle prejudice remains o Example: People tend to perceive their dads as more intelligent than their moms  People feel more positively about women than men Why does prejudice arise? - When some people are well off and others are not, the people who are well off tend to develop attitudes that justify why things are this way - Just-world phenomenon: the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get o So people assume that those who succeed must be good, and those who suffer must be bad - Victims of discrimination may react in self-blame or anger, which would add to prejudice through “blame-the-victim” o Higher crime rate could be used to justify discrimination against those in poverty - We have the need to belong and there is safety in numbers - Prejudice also occurs by dividing the world into “us” and “them” o We cheer, defend, and die for our groups o Ingroup:“Us”– people with whom we share common identity o Outgroup:“Them” – those whom we think are different from our ingroup o Ingroup bias:the tendency to favour our own group  Example: sports teams – Miami Heat (Miami ingroup) vs. Chicago Bulls (Chicago outgroup) o Distinguishing between friends and foes in this way predisposes us to be prejudice to strangers - Prejudice also comes from emotions Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support - Scapegoat theory: theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone for blame o Example: After 9/11, outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans Cognitive Roots of Prejudice - Prejudice comes from social divisions, emotions, but also from one’s mind - One way we simplify our world is to categorize o Therapists categorize psychological disorders, people categorize others by race (despite being mixed, Obama is perceived by most Americans as black) o By putting people into groups, we emphasize how different we are o Other-race effect: tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect or the own-race bias Aggression o Any physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt or destroy - Stems from interaction between biology and experience Biology of Aggression - Three levels of influence: genetic, neural, biochemical - Genetics influence aggression o Study done on twins showed that if one identical twin admits to having a violent temper, the other twin will often independently admit the same o Fraternal twins are less likely to respond similarly - No specific spot in brain that controls aggression but when provoked neural systems will either inhibit or facilitate aggression o Frontal lobe plays important role in controlling impulses. When damaged, aggression may be more likely - The hormone testosterone circulates in the bloodstream and influences neural systems that dominate aggression o As men age, testosterone levels decrease and in turn, so does aggression Psychological and Socio-Cultural Factors of Aggression - Frustration-aggression principle:idea that frustration (the lack of an attempt to achieve a goal) create anger which can cause aggression - Aversive stimuli such as hot temperatures, pain, insults, bad smells, and crowds can cause hostility Reinforcement and Modelling - Aggression might be natural response to difficult events but learning can alter natural reactions - By reinforcing good behaviours, you can create positive change especially in children Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support - Media is also a strong model for aggression (positive and negative) o Social script: culturally modeled guide for how o act in various situations o When we find ourselves in uncertain situations, we rely on social scripts (things learned from movies or tv) to dictate our behaviour o Experiments show that positive video games have positive effects while violent video games increased aggression o We are what we repeatedly do o Violence has many determinants and different biological, psychological, and social factors influence aggressive behaviour Raising Marks, Raising Money, Raising Roofs York SOS: Students Offering Support SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY : MODULE 46 Prosocial Relations Attraction - 3 things affect our attraction to others: proximity, attractiveness, and similarity Proximity - being geographically close to someone and is a powerful indicator of friendship - It breeds liking partly because of the mere exposure effect - Mere exposure effect: idea that repeated exposure to a novel stimuli increases liking of them o Applies to music selection, human faces, even the letters in our own name o Familiarity breeds fondness; what is familiar is generally safe and what is unfamiliar could be dangerous Physical Attractiveness - Initially, appearance greatly influences how attracted we are to someone o Example: Blind-dates - Physicall
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