PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Final Guide: Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Abnormal Psychology

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7 Apr 2020
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Psych Final Exam Study Notes
Abnormal psychology : distress is present, behaviour is unusual, impaired functioning
Neurotic: distressing problem but person can still function normally and is coherent
Psychotic: more bizarre, delusions or hallucinations, impaired thought processes and cannot
function socially
Any disorder - 45-50% of people
Substance use disorder (including alcoholism) - 25% of people
Anxiety disorders - 20%
Mood disorders - 15%
Schizophrenic disorders - less than 3%
Fear is a normal reaction to a known, external source of danger
Phobias are abnormal reactions to a known, external source of danger
In Anxiety, the reactions are similar but the source of danger is not known, recognized, or it is
inadequate to account for the symptoms
Most common fears: flying, blood, heights, animals
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (5%): symptoms of anxiety for at least 6 months, excessive worry,
restlessness, sleep disturbances
Panic Disorder (11%): recurrent and unexpected panic attacks, intense dread, chest pain, choking, fear
of going crazy or dying, shaking, nausea, shortness of breath, feeling dizzy or out of breath,
Social Anxiety (3-13%): fear in social situations where possibly exposed to scrutiny, afraid of humiliation
or embarrassment that will lead to rejection, social situations are avoided or endured with intense fear,
causes distress and/or impairment in function
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7-8%): threat of death or serious injury to self or others, re-experiencing
traumatic event, avoidance of stimuli associated with the event, difficulties with sleep, concentration
and irritability
Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (2%): four themes: obsessions & checking, order & symmetry,
cleanliness & washing, hoarding
Obsessions: persistent, uncontrollable thoughts
Compulsions: rituals, behaviours that reduce anxiety
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Multiple Personality Disorder (very rare): presence of at least 2 distinct personalities, sudden changes in
identity and consciousness, each personality has unique style/gap of memory, dissociative process
related to severe abuse in early childhood
Depression: depressed mood, lost of interest, vegetative symptoms (weight, sleep), loss of energy, loss
of concentration, suicide, 10% in men & 20% in women, more common in women because they are
more likely to report symptoms, different expression than men, exposure to higher traumatic stress
early in life
Seasonal Affective Disorder: depressive symptoms related to short winter days, treatable with light
therapy
Theories Of Depression
Biological predisposition: concordance rates in twins: identical 65% fraternal 15%, G X E models (genetic
and environment)
Cognitive perspective: Beck; negative (dysfunctional) beliefs about the self, Seligman; Attribution
Theory; internal, stable, global attributions for negative events
Diathesis-stress models: interaction between personality and negative life events; dependency/self
criticism
Bipolar disorders: periods of depression that alternate with manic episodes
Mania: abnormally elevated mood, inflated self-esteem, pressures of speech, increased energy,
decreased need for sleep, over-activity. lack of inhibition and impaired judgement
1% in men and women, strong genetic component
Suicide:
University students: 40-50% have suicidal thoughts, 15% attempt suicide, 2nd leading cause of
death among 15-24yr olds
Major Risk Factors:
talking about wanting to hurt oneself/having a plan
withdrawal from family and friends
experiencing a major loss or stressor (feelings of shame, humiliation, failure, rejection)
history of child abuse )self-harm in women)
abuse of drugs or alcohol/impulsivity
How to help:
establish communication, talk about suicidal wishes
identify needs that have been frustrated, search for love, recognition, respect?
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