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Test 2 Review- Chapters 3, 5, 6, and 16

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Test 2 Review Chapter 3 5 6 and 16 Chapter 6y Phobias irrational fears of specific objects or situations y Result of classical conditioning y Learning relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience y Much of behaviour is the result of learning y Most organisms are capable of learning y Conditioning involves learning associations between events that occur in an organisms environment y Classical conditioning type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus Pavlov 5A y Unconditioned stimulus UCS stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning y Unconditioned response UCR unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning y Conditioned stimulus CS previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response y Conditioned response CR learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning y Pavlovs psychic reflex came to be called the conditioned reflex y Reflexes are elicited drawn forth because most of them are relatively automatic or involuntary y Trial in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli y Classical conditioning procedures can lead to immunosuppression decrease in the production of antibiotics y Classical conditioning can also elicit allergic reactions and can contribute to the growth of drug tolerance and the experience of withdrawal symptoms when drug use is halted y Continued use of drugs may lead to increased drug tolerance in which increasing amounts of the drug are needed to produce the same effect y Drug use leads the body to produce compensatory responses in an attempt to counteract or compensate for the effects of the drug on the body y The greater the compensatory response the more of the drug that is needed to produce the same effect y Classical conditioning can influence sexual arousal y Conditioned stimuli can even elicit increased sperm release in male quail which would convey an evolutionary advantage y Classical conditioning may also underlie the development of fetishes for inanimate objects y Drug tolerance involves a gradual decline in responsiveness to a drug with repeated use so that larger and larger doses are required to attain the users customary effect y Drug tolerance is largely attributable to physiological changes y Stimuli that are consistently paired with the administration of drugs can acquire the capacity to elicit conditioned responses in both humans and laboratory animals y Conditioned responses are physiological reactions that are just the opposite of the normal effects of the drugs y These opponent responses are called compensatory CRs because they partially compensate for some drug effects y They help maintain homeostasis in physiological processes y If drugs are taken in new ways or in new settings the usual compensatory CRs may not occurDelay conditioning type of pairing that you want CS presented slightly before US OVERLAP y Simultaneous conditioning presenting CS and US at the same time unreliable y Trace conditioning CS is presented before the US with no overlap between the two unreliable y Backward conditioning reverse of delay conditioning present US slightly before the CS yusually will not result in a CR OVERLAP 5B y Acquisition the initial stage of learning something y Pavlov theorized that the acquisition of a conditioned response depends on stimulus contiguity y Stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in time and space y People are bombarded daily by stimuli that could be perceived as being paired yet only some of these pairings produce classical conditioning y Stimuli that are novel unusual or especially intense have more potential to become CSs than routine stimuli probably because they are more likely to stand out among other stimuli y Extinction the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency y Consistent presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone without the unconditioned stimulus leads to extinction in classical conditioning y Extinguishing a conditioned response depends on the strength of conditioned bond when extinction begins y Some extinguish quickly while other are difficult to weakeny Spontaneous recovery reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus y Renewal effect if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired the extinguished response will reappear if the animal was returned to the original environment where acquisition took place y Extinction does not appear to lead to unlearning 5B y After conditioning organisms often show a tendency to respond not only to the exact CS used but also to other similar stimuli y Stimulus generalization when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus y The more similar new stimuli are to the original CS the greater the generalization y Stimulus discrimination when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus y The less similar new stimuli are to the original CS the greater the likelihood and ease of discrimination y Higherorder conditioning a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus o When a wellestablished CS1 starts acting as though it were an UCS and is able to bring the CR under the central of a CS2 o CS2 is weaker than CS1 o By fourth CS the CR does not occury Operant conditioning form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences y Also called instrumental learning Thorndike y Law of effect if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened 5C y Skinner demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favourable consequences y Reinforcement when an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that response y Operant chamber Skinner box small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled y Emit send forth y Reinforcement contingencies circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to presentation of reinforcers y Cumulative recorder creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time y A rapid response rate produces a steep slope whereas a slow response rate produces a shallow slope SIM45C y Operant responses are usually established through a gradual process called shaping y Shaping consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response y Extinction begins in operant conditioning whenever previously available reinforcement is stopped o Occurs when a previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced and this leads to a gradual weakening and disappearance of the response y Resistance to extinction when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer has been terminatedy Responseoutcome associations RO y When a response is consistently followed by a reinforcer in the presence of a particular stimulus that stimulus comes to serve as a signal indicating that the response is likely to lead to a reinforcer y Discriminative stimuli Sd cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probably consequences reinforcement or nonreinforcement of a response o A special stimulus that acts as a signal that a reinforcer is forthcoming o Stimulus stranger response baby smiles consequence no attention o Dad is discriminative stimulusStimulus generalization yo Is when a response that occurs in the presence of a particular stimulus is reinforced it will likely also occur in the presence of other similar stimuli o Stimulus dad response baby smiles consequence dad pays attention o If this occurs when stranger looks like dad it is stimulus generalization 5E y Central process in reinforcement is the strengthening of a response tendency y Reinforcement is defined after the fact in terms of its effect on behaviour y Something that is clearly reinforcing for an organism at one time may not function as a reinforcer later y Primary reinforcers are events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
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