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PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Somniloquy, Sleep Spindle, Axon TerminalPremium

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis
Study Guide

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PSYC 1010 – Introduction to Psychology
Test 2A/2B Study Guide
Professor: Rebecca Jubis
York University

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HH PSYC 1010 - Lecture 11 - Learning (part 4)
Stimulus generalization
- when a response that occurs in the presence of a particular stimulus is reinforced, it
likely also occur in the presence of other similar stimuli.
the more similar, the more likely generalization will occur
Stimulus discrimination
- opposite of stimulus generalization
- when a response does not occur in the presence of a new stimulus that
resembles the original one
Discriminative Stimulus (Sd)
- signals that a response will be reinforced
- occurs when a previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced and
this leads to a gradual weakening and disappearance of the response
Spontaneous Recovery
- when an extinguished response spontaneously occurs in the presence of
the stimulus (after a rest period)
positive reinforcement- adding something pleasant to the situation to increase the
likelihood of it happening again
Negative Reinforcement (Sr-)
- not a punishment, not necessarily something "bad"
- when something unpleasant is removed from the situation and this increases the probability
of the response reocurring
Positive punishment- adding something unpleasant to the situation, decreases
probability of that response reoccuring
Negative punishment- removing something pleasant, decreases probability of that
response reoccuring
- punishing is very effective at suppressing unwanted behaviour but not necessarily
eliminating it
- punishment should be given immediately after the response, it is most effective that way
- punishment should be delivered consistently
- use reasoning when given punishment to explain why it is given
Alternatives to punishment
- Skinner believed that instead of giving punishment, should reinforce acceptable
- if you use punishment, use it in conjunction with reinforcement of an alternative

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desirable behaviour
HH PSYC 1010 - Lecture 12 - Social Behaviour
- area of psychology whose main purpose is to study the behaviour of groups
- generally subdivided into 2 categories:
1) social cognition- involves the study of the way we perceive and evaluate others
2) social influence- the study of how we influence each other's behaviours,
attitudes, beliefs, etc.
Social Influence
- obedience vs. compliance
compliance- agreeing to someone's direct request or command
obedience- same as compliance, however the person making the request is an
authority figure
conformity- adjusting your behaviour or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Milgram (social psychologist):
- researched "what are the kinds of things that make people obey other people?"
- teacher and learner: learner must repeat words back to teacher, if incorrect then the
learner would be shocked with electricity by learner
- the participant volunteer played the role of the teacher, an actor played the learner
really shocked)
Different conditions of this experiment:
1) remote- 65% were fully obedient (would zap the learner)
- could only hear banging on wall from next room coming from learner
2) voice feedback- 62.5% were fully obedient
- could hear voice of learner from next room
3) proximity- 40% were fully obedient
- teacher and learner right beside each other
4) touch- 30% were fully obedient
- contact with electric board
5) no contact- 100%
- absolutely no contact at all between teacher and learner (no
Factors that influence obedience
1) Social norms- sense of having to follow through with agreements you make due to
societal expectations
2) Surveillance- obedience dropped from 65% to 22% in the presence of no surveillance of
3) How direct the experience- obedience is less likely to happen when teacher and learner
are sitting right beside each other
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