PSYC 1010 Study Guide - Final Guide: Twin, Schizotypal Personality Disorder, Social Influence

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1 May 2016
Department
Course
Psychology Exam Final Review
Chapter 15
Tuesday, March 1st, 2016
Neuroses: Part 1
What is Abnormal Psychology?
Criteria/ Classification for Psychology Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety
Panic Disorder
PTSD
Obsessive Compulsive Disorders
What is Abnormal?
Criteria:
Distress is present
Person is suffering, unhappy
they’re experiencing emotional pain
will tell you “I can’t stand feeling this way”, inner sense of feeling of upset
Behaviour is maladaptive
Impaired functioning, either their contact with reality is not intact, can’t grasp the nature
of reality like others
Relationships are impaired, can’t relate to other people
Socially Deviant
Behaviour is unusual, “not normal”
‘talking to an invisible person in the corner --> experiencing delusions or hallucinations
someone is afraid of going out of the house, afraid to use public transportation
Classification: DSM V
A lot of issues with classification; labelling people --> putting that label creates a separate
category of recognized illnesses
Why Classify? Medical Model --> much better than the way we understood mental
illnesses; medical model is where mental illnesses are seen as diseases and provided a
progression over the previous understanding of it.
Simplify and create order; when using generic terms, it avoids misunderstanding caused
by broader terms
Each disorders has been studied under the classification
Research is paramount as well
Plan treatment; if you’ve done research and you’ve been able to figure out that some
illnesses are more distinct than others, then you can figure out the antecedents and what
affects particular groups of people
Figure 15.3; mini version of the DSM V
Somatic conditions don’t have a physical basis
Where is the dividing line between normal and abnormal behaviour?
Deviation from statistical average
very objective
Figure 15.2; Criteria for Abnormality
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There is no absolute cut off with abnormal behaviour, there is a continuum
There is a point where the behaviour becomes of concern; how unusual is the behaviour?
What degree of deviance, personal distress, and maladaptive behaviour is present?
Classification (cont’d)
Older distinction:
Neurotic vs. Psychotic
a simple way to determine an understanding of the person
Neurotic: Distressing problem but person is still coherent and can function socially
(once acute phase of disorder is treated)
Many people with this kind of disorder can function normally once out of their
episode
Psychotic: More bizarre, involving delusions or hallucinations. Individual has impaired
thought processes and cannot function socially, Treatment is long term.
It’s not like “I feel worthless” thought processes, more like “my thoughts are being
broadcast on TV right now, God is speaking to me, I am a messenger” type of
thought processes
If symptoms persist for more than two weeks then we know there is a permanent factor
involved
Portion of population meeting criteria for disorder (%): one in two people will experience a
disorder at some point in their lifetime
Anxiety and Fear
Fear is a normal reaction to a known, external source of danger. Phobias are abnormal reactions
In anxiety, the individual is frightened but the source of the danger is not known, not
recognized, or inadequate to account for the symptoms
The physiological manifestations are similar
Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety: fear in situations that pose no objective threat
snake phobia; some people couldn’t watch it and that is the example of anxiety
Three components:
Cognitive:
Extreme/chronic worry; fear of harm, planning day to avoid feared object, fear of
next flight (plane)
Physiological:
Muscle tension, increased heart rate; body doesn’t know difference between real or
imagined threat if individual responds same way to both
Behavioural:
Shaking, jumpiness, pacing, avoidance; avoidance is the most problematic and
reenforces the notion that there is something to be afraid of
Generalized Anxiety Disorders (5%)
Symptoms of anxiety felt continuously for at least 6 months for someone to be diagnosed
Excessive worry, restlessness, sleep disturbances
link in slide; short video on symptoms on generalized anxiety disorder
Panic Disorders (2-3%)
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Presence of recurrent and unexpected panic attacks:
intense dread, chest pain, choking, fear of going crazy or dying, shaking, nausea,
feelings of weakness
terrifying state that people mistake for a heart attack
People who have one or two develop a fear of having another one; not going back to the
mall because that’s where the first panic attack happened
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7-8%)
Re-experiencing traumatic events; common in war veterans or people who have witnessed
death, calamities and natural disasters
before being classified, you’d have to have experience this over a number of months
Avoidance of stimuli associated with trauma; not be able to talk about some of the context
of the traumatic event
Difficulties with sleep, concentration, irritability
Social Anxiety: (3-13%)
Different disorder; specific to social situations
Fear of performance in social situations; by social situations we mean situation involving
other people
Fear of public speaking/or speaking in a group
The worst part of social anxiety is fear of speaking to the opposite sex; feelings of isolation
and loneliness
Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (2%) - Howie Mandel
Obsessions: persistent, uncontrollable thoughts
Fear of being contaminated by germs, bacteria
Compulsions: Rituals, behaviours that reduce anxiety
washing hands fifty times to reduce anxiety
Four different themes:
Obsessions and checking
Cleanliness and washing
Hoarding
is a new category of disorder added to the DSM V. People who suffer from this
never throw away anything over their lifetime.
Tuesday, March 8th, 2016
PSYC 1010
Psychoses Part 1
Psychotic Disorders: loss and touch out of reality, unable to see reality and function in an appropriate
way
Schizophrenia Disorders – Split Mind
- Fragment of neuroses, an actual fragment in cognitive processes
- Distinguished from Multiple Personality Disorder
- recognized over centuries and hasn’t changed in incidence rate.
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