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Final Exam Review.docx

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York University
PSYC 2120
Stephen Fleming

Chapter 11: Sources of Prejudice Nature and power of prejudice  Prejudice, stereotyping, discrimination, sexism all involve negative evaluation of some group  Nature of prejudice: a negative prejudgment of a group and its individual members  Prejudice is an attitude: involves attitudes, behaviour, cognition oriented towards ppl  Negative evaluations that mark prejudice are often supported by negative beliefs, called stereotypes: generalizations  Problems w/ stereotypes arise when they are overgeneralized or just plain wrong o Ppl also attributed negatively perceived differences to biology, ignoring toxic social differences o E.g. women cannot succeed in engineering or business bc of lack of math or leadership skills, whereas true reasons lie in unfair evaluations and self-fulfilling prophecies  Whereas prejudice=(-) attitude, discrimination=(-)behaviour o Discrimination has its source in prejudicial attitudes, but not always as behaviour and attitudes are loosely linked  Racism and sexism are institutional practices that discriminate, even when there is no prejudicial intent Prejudice: overt, subtle and automatic  For most social groups, overt forms of prejudice decreased, but subtle forms of prejudice are still widespread  Prejudiced attitudes surface when they hide behind the screen of some other motive  Subtle prejudice eg exaggerating racial differences, rejecting them for supposedly non- racial reasons, is replacing blatant prejudice o Modern prejudice is now referred to as “cultural racism” or “modern racism”  Automatic prejudice: we rretain from childhood a habitual, automatic fear or dislike for ppl whom we overtly express respect  Although explicit attitudes change thru education, implicit attitudes linger, only to be changed thru formation of new habits and practice  E.g. in IAT, ppl associate the words “peace and paradise” faster with White faces than with black faces even though they express no prejudice Social sources of prejudice  Unequal status breeds prejudice  Once inequalities exist, prejudice helps justify the economic and social superiority of those who have wealth and power  Stereotypes rationalize unequal status  Blacks and women seen as mentally slow, emotional, primitive, contented with subordinate roles, blacks
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