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Chapter 6.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2120
Professor
Kerry Kawakami
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 6 Attitudes and Attitude Change • Attitude- an evaluation of a person, object or idea • Affectively based attitude- an attitude based on people's emotions and feelings about the attitude object for e.g. falling in love with someone despite knowing that they have a history of being untrustworthy • Ambivalence OR mixed feelings • 3 components of attitudes: 1. Affective component- emotional reactions toward the attitude object- another person or social issue 2. Cognitive component- consisting of thoughts and beliefs about the attitude object 3. Behavioral component- actions or observable behavior toward an attitude object • Attitudes come from people's values- religious and moral beliefs • Affectively based attitudes have 3 things in common- examples- abortion, death penalty, premarital sex 1. Do not result from a rational examination of issues 2. Not governed by logic- instinct feeling/emotion 3. Often linked to ppls values, so trying to change them challenges those values • Cognitively based attitude- based primarily on a person's beliefs about the properties of an attitude object • It classifies the pluses and minuses of an object so we can easily tell whether it is worth our while to have anything to do with it • Behaviorally based attitude- how one behaves toward an attitude object • Daryl bem's- self perception theory- we don’t know how we feel until we see how we behave • If we dislike a group-its cognitive base • If we like the group- its its based on feelings- affect • Where do affectively based attitudes come from? People's moral or religious beliefs • Cancer poster ended with 'help others live': positive correlation btwn altruistic values and having favourable attitudes towards donating to cancer research & no relation : 'save your future' • Self- perception theory( daryl bem): ppl don’t know how they feel until they see how they behave • For e.g. going to the gym. You go to the gym everyday SO you like it. • When attitudes are NEGATIVE towards a group- they are cognitive based • Symbolic beliefs- beliefs that threaten their value system • When we like a certain group- its affectively based, also social issues • Explicit attitudes- attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report • Implicit attitudes- involuntary, uncontrollable, unconscious evaluations • Most popular technique to measure ppls implicit attitudes- IAT- implicit association test- ppl categorize words and pics on the comp • Theory of planned behavior- it best predictors of a person's planned, deliberate behaviours are the person's attitudes toward specific behaviours, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control • There must be specific attitudes towards a study in order to get more accurate answers or results • Attitude towards the behavior- peoples specific attitude toward the behavior, not their general attitude • Subjective norms- people's beliefs about how other people they care about will view the behavior in question • Perceived behavioral control- ease at which people believe they can perform the behavior • If a behavior is difficult to perform then a person wont form a strong intention to perform it compared to if its easy • Personal attitudes = stronger predictor of behavioural intentions in individualistic cultures, social norms= collectivist cultures • Theory of planned behaviour- implications for safer sex • Only 56% of ppl used condoms, 29% used a condom last year during casual sex • Subjective norms: how ppl view their behavior in question. Beliefs that are held in a social group are important about condom use • The norm of permissive sexuality where people go on vacations and have causal sex= less condom use • If we anticipate a negative, we wont use condom and have sex without one ( we don’t want to look bad ) • Perceived behavioural control= if ppl think its difficult to perform a task, they wont form strong intentions in doing so • Ppl are embarrassed of buying condoms, feel awkward bringing up the topic of condom use while an encounter • The more difficult they found it to bring up condom use, the less likely they are to bring it up = less condom use • Behavioural intentions= mood affects condom use, bad mood= no condom use, low self- esteem, rejection • alcohol intoxication - ability to process information is impaired = short-term pleasure rather than long-term consequences • Attitude change- persuasive communication: communication advocating a particular side of an issue ( tv ad ) • Yale attitude change: in which ppl are likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive msges; "who said what to whom"- the source of communication (how attractive is the speaker ), nature of communication (quality of arguments- if the speaker is fair, both sides of argument present) , nature of audience ( what works w/ Friendly or hostile audiences) • Central and peripheral routes to persuasion: • Heuristic- systematic model of persuasion- two ways a persuasive communication can cause attitude change 1. systematic processing ( ppl process the merits of arguments ) 2. heuristic processing ( swayed by factors that are peripheral to the message itself "experts are always right ") • Elaboration likelihood model- 1. central route- when ppl are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication 2. peripheral route- when ppl do NOT pay attention to arguments but are swayed by surface characteristics ( e.g. who gave the speech ) • When ppl logically think about and process the info- chaiken calls it systematic thinking
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