Study Guides (248,149)
Canada (121,345)
York University (10,192)
Psychology (1,203)
PSYC 2120 (65)

Chapter 6.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 2120
Kerry Kawakami

Chapter 6 Attitudes and Attitude Change • Attitude- an evaluation of a person, object or idea • Affectively based attitude- an attitude based on people's emotions and feelings about the attitude object for e.g. falling in love with someone despite knowing that they have a history of being untrustworthy • Ambivalence OR mixed feelings • 3 components of attitudes: 1. Affective component- emotional reactions toward the attitude object- another person or social issue 2. Cognitive component- consisting of thoughts and beliefs about the attitude object 3. Behavioral component- actions or observable behavior toward an attitude object • Attitudes come from people's values- religious and moral beliefs • Affectively based attitudes have 3 things in common- examples- abortion, death penalty, premarital sex 1. Do not result from a rational examination of issues 2. Not governed by logic- instinct feeling/emotion 3. Often linked to ppls values, so trying to change them challenges those values • Cognitively based attitude- based primarily on a person's beliefs about the properties of an attitude object • It classifies the pluses and minuses of an object so we can easily tell whether it is worth our while to have anything to do with it • Behaviorally based attitude- how one behaves toward an attitude object • Daryl bem's- self perception theory- we don’t know how we feel until we see how we behave • If we dislike a group-its cognitive base • If we like the group- its its based on feelings- affect • Where do affectively based attitudes come from? People's moral or religious beliefs • Cancer poster ended with 'help others live': positive correlation btwn altruistic values and having favourable attitudes towards donating to cancer research & no relation : 'save your future' • Self- perception theory( daryl bem): ppl don’t know how they feel until they see how they behave • For e.g. going to the gym. You go to the gym everyday SO you like it. • When attitudes are NEGATIVE towards a group- they are cognitive based • Symbolic beliefs- beliefs that threaten their value system • When we like a certain group- its affectively based, also social issues • Explicit attitudes- attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report • Implicit attitudes- involuntary, uncontrollable, unconscious evaluations • Most popular technique to measure ppls implicit attitudes- IAT- implicit association test- ppl categorize words and pics on the comp • Theory of planned behavior- it best predictors of a person's planned, deliberate behaviours are the person's attitudes toward specific behaviours, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control • There must be specific attitudes towards a study in order to get more accurate answers or results • Attitude towards the behavior- peoples specific attitude toward the behavior, not their general attitude • Subjective norms- people's beliefs about how other people they care about will view the behavior in question • Perceived behavioral control- ease at which people believe they can perform the behavior • If a behavior is difficult to perform then a person wont form a strong intention to perform it compared to if its easy • Personal attitudes = stronger predictor of behavioural intentions in individualistic cultures, social norms= collectivist cultures • Theory of planned behaviour- implications for safer sex • Only 56% of ppl used condoms, 29% used a condom last year during casual sex • Subjective norms: how ppl view their behavior in question. Beliefs that are held in a social group are important about condom use • The norm of permissive sexuality where people go on vacations and have causal sex= less condom use • If we anticipate a negative, we wont use condom and have sex without one ( we don’t want to look bad ) • Perceived behavioural control= if ppl think its difficult to perform a task, they wont form strong intentions in doing so • Ppl are embarrassed of buying condoms, feel awkward bringing up the topic of condom use while an encounter • The more difficult they found it to bring up condom use, the less likely they are to bring it up = less condom use • Behavioural intentions= mood affects condom use, bad mood= no condom use, low self- esteem, rejection • alcohol intoxication - ability to process information is impaired = short-term pleasure rather than long-term consequences • Attitude change- persuasive communication: communication advocating a particular side of an issue ( tv ad ) • Yale attitude change: in which ppl are likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive msges; "who said what to whom"- the source of communication (how attractive is the speaker ), nature of communication (quality of arguments- if the speaker is fair, both sides of argument present) , nature of audience ( what works w/ Friendly or hostile audiences) • Central and peripheral routes to persuasion: • Heuristic- systematic model of persuasion- two ways a persuasive communication can cause attitude change 1. systematic processing ( ppl process the merits of arguments ) 2. heuristic processing ( swayed by factors that are peripheral to the message itself "experts are always right ") • Elaboration likelihood model- 1. central route- when ppl are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication 2. peripheral route- when ppl do NOT pay attention to arguments but are swayed by surface characteristics ( e.g. who gave the speech ) • When ppl logically think about and process the info- chaiken calls it systematic thinking
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2120

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.