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Personality Final Exam Review.docx

12 Pages

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PSYC 2130
Frank Marchese

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Personality Final Exam Review Chapter 8 Evolution of the Trait ConceptThe lexical approach is based on the assumption that the more important a disposition is the more often it will be referred to in ordinary language Many researchers think of aggression as an important dispositionThe theoretical approach looks to theory to suggest which human dispositions are the most central or important Some dispositional theorists propose as traits tendencies that seem to them to have important implications for personality and understanding individual differences The statistical approach analyzes very large collections of data about many people to identify the basic factors that underlie the data set Factor analysis has been a favourite tool of researchers who use the statistical approachALLPORT believed that traits are the basin units of personality ALLPORT developed 8 assertions regarding traitso Traits have more than nominal existence they are part of the person o Traits are more generalized than habits o Traits are dynamic and determine behaviour o Traits may be established empirically o Traits are only relatively independent of other traits o Traits are not synonymous with moral or social judgements o Traits may be viewed either in the light of the personality that contains them ideographically or in the light of their distribution in the population nomothetically o Acts and even habits that are inconsistent with a trait are not proof of the nonexistence of the traitA cardinal disposition is the pervasive traits that dominate the individualCentral dispositions are the relatively small number of traits that tend to be highly characteristic of a person they might be thought of as the characteristics we would mention when writing a detailed letter of recognition for exampleSecondary dispositions are characteristics that operate only in limited settings Preferences for particular kinds of food specific attitudes and other peripheral or situational determined characteristics are included in this categoryThe nomotheticidiographic distinction is to think of traits as characteristics that are unique to a person and do not invite or even permit comparison with other peopleCommon traits often have a normal distribution they are dispositions that allow direct trait comparisons across peoplePatterned Individuality is the assumption that each person has a unique inner organization of motives traits and personal styleIndividual traits refer to those important characteristics of the individual that do not lend themselves to comparison across personsType A behaviour pattern is a pattern of responding characterized by high competitive drive coupled with a continuous rush to meet deadlines it is predictive of later heart attacksType B behaviour pattern is a pattern of responding characterized by an easygoing and relaxed mannerType is a broad grouping of personality characteristics that tend to cooccurRaymond CATTELL proposed that 3 broad sources of data are required for an analysis that aims to uncover all the major dimensions of personality These are o Ldataare gathered from a persons life records o Qdataare gathered from questionnaires and interviews people answer direct questions about themselves based on personal observations and introspection o Tdataare obtained through objective testing situationsUnivariate research is when the researcher changes one variable independent and examines its effects on the other variable dependentMultivariant approaches examine many variables simultaneouslyFactor analysis is a statistical tool that takes a highly sophisticated mathematical approach to personality assessment The correlation matrix is a table that shows the exact relationship between each measure and every other measureData that is reduced to small numbers of relatively homogeneous dimensions are called factorsThe correlation of a measure with a particular factor is called factor loading a variable is said to load onto a particular factor to the extent that it is correlated with that factorFactor analysis consists of collecting data producing a correlation matrix extracting factors determining factor loads and naming the factors Source traits CATTELLS 16 personality traits are the building blocks of personality source traits can only be discovered through factor analysisPersonality types EYESNCK are dimensions on which all persons differ from one anotherEYESNCKS model of personality is hierarchical types are at the top of the personality structure and therefore exert the most commanding influence Types are composed of traits traits are composed of habitual responses At the most specific level specific responses are the elements from which individuals form habitsPsychoticism includes a disposition toward psychosis a mental disorder characterized by poor contact with reality and inability to effectively perform routine tasks or activities of daily living and a degree of sociopathy characterized by an absence of real loyalists to any person group or ethical or moral code Those high in Psychoticism tend to be impulsive the opposite of Freuds superego strengthCarl Jung was the first to offer a description of the introversionextraversion dimension of personality He believed that extraverts focus their psychic energy outward toward the world beyond themselves In contrast introverts focus their attention and energy inward toward the self and internal private events in the forms of thought feelings emotions and fantasyNeuroticism in EYESNCKS scheme is a measure of emotional stabilityinstability with high neuroticism characterized by greater instability
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