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Motivation (all lectures).docx

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PSYC 2230
Frank Marchese

Motivation 16/05/2013 4:28:00 PM We can control our arousal As arousal increase, there is optimal level (p62) Extrovert lower physiological internal level of arousal than introvert a/ Inverted U function: behaviour most efficient at optimal level of arousal. Yerkes-Dodson Law:: a relationship btw level of arousal and efficient performance. Different tasks are related to arousal level and performance: higher arousal for simple, habitual tasks and lower arousal for complex cognitive tasks. Emotion and motivation related to activation of nervous system and there are structures that come into play in emotion and motivation.  Separating the medulla from the spinal cord and organism goes thru normal sleep-wake cycle ( encephala isole preparation).  Separation of the colliculi from the brainstem the organism is deprived of crucial structures (medulla, pons, and reticular activating system – RAS - ) and organism sleeps constantly ( cerveau isole preparation). (overactive RAS prob sleep, under RAS – prob waking up)  D. RAS nerve cells in central core of brain stem ( fig 3.5 p 65) Moruzzi and Magoun (1949) stimulated RAS electrically and changes in electrical activity of cortex were noted in EEG-brain wave activity .  Synchronous – Alpha wave activity related to a relaxed organism.  Desynchronous – Beta wave activity related to alert, attentive, aroused organism. E. RAS receives sensory input from external sensory system as well as internal organs and muscles. :Lindsley ( 1951) cut all structures around the RAS and preserved sleep-wake cycle. He cut the RAS and organism slept constantly. RAS sends fibers to cortex. Thus, RAS arousal led to viewing emotion (RAS can arouse cortex) and motivation as equivalent to cortical arousal. II. Hebb’s Arousal Theory Sensory information serves 2 functions: a. to provide info, a cue function and an arousal function. If cortex is not aroused cue function has no effect.[(orienting reflex) we want to have reason why we do this, think that etc…even create story not true] b. sensory stimuli sent to cortex and RAS. The stimulus effect at RAS level is to activate ―tone up‖ – the cortex so that stimulus information coming from the thalamus can be processed. Motivation for Hebb is activation of the cortex. c. cortex sends fibers down to RAS and stimulates it when internal and external stimulation is low. D. downstream connections from cortex to RAS may explain how thoughts, images, memories can activate and motivate behaviours. While trying to sleep if RAS is activated it in turn activates the cortex and sleep becomes difficult – tossing and turning! (james Lange theo, schafter singer theo, kannen p ( even external sensorial is constant sleepy, we can start our imagination our recall past memo to activate cortex ->activate RAS) (memo = psychological material that can activate RAS) [chap1] VII. Philosophical and physiological Theory: A. Philosophical theory is derived from notions about what constitutes human nature that was very much a part of Greed philosophy. Eg, Aristotle propose: the soul ( mind) is free ( to make a choice, free mind = indeterminism), thus free will; and the mind is a blank slate atbirth. Hence, xperience and learning determines in part the mind‘s contents. - contrary to Aristotle‘s position is Determinism: all action is caused by antecedent variables. - In the nature-nurture controversy, Aristotle is on the side of nurture. 1. Descartes: a dualistic theory of human nature, whereby human behaviour is partly the result of a free, rational soul (cognitive functions) and partly the result of automatic (non-rational) processes of the body, as evidenced by instincts. (animal don‘t choose to do this do that but human do). -Descartes‘ approach suggests a mechanical view of human nature as in automatic reactions to stimuli and a cognitive view of the mind‘s capacity to think and reason. -Nature-nurture controversy is an outgrowth of Aristotle and Descartes‘ competing views. 2. Locke introduced 2 imp ideas for psy: I) role of sensory xp in determining contents of mind since mind at birth is a blank slate, a ―tabula rasa‖ (ex Aris‘ position) and II) Association of ideas in which sensation is converted into ideas, the basic units of the mind. - From sensation to perception of ‗what is‘ and thru reflection the mind gains knowledge of its own operations. - Complex ideas may be reduced to simple ideas and it is the mind‘s capacity to associate one idea with another that accounts for the formation of concepts and knowledge. Functional autonomy of motives: motives bcome independent – autonomous- of their orig biological sources. (assoc by continuity – 2 item appear close together if associate by time / space) (learn taste aversion) - for ex, working to survive may come independent of the orig biological necessity to (provide food and shelter to satisfy needs. Work for its ‗own sake‘ so as to ‗achieve‘ may bcome separated from its orig biological source. It bcomes an independent motive and forms the basis of achievement motivation or effectance motivation.(I work, I get food. But now I work also for enjoyment of work) B. Physiological antecedents: 1. Galen (AD 129-199( proposed sensory-motor nerves and his provided a basis of how interest in the nervous system influenced modern motivational psy. th Bell and Magendie in the 19 century showed how sensory-motor connections in the nervous system form the basis of action. Futhermore, the study of sensation (sensory) on the one hand, ans responses (motor action) in the other led to stimulus-response (S-R) psychology as an outgrowth of senrory-motor physiology. 2. Doctrine of specific nerve energies specifies that diff nerves are responsible for diff sensations ( hot-cold, colors) and are based upon sensory xp. The nervous syst organizes sensory xp and interprets it, which gives rise to diff sensory xp. th 3. Electrical Nature of nerve impulse was suggested by Galvani (18 ). Activity of the nerve is electrical in nature and can be measured. th  This was supported by DuBois-Reymond and Helmholtz (19 ) measuring the strength and speed of nerve impulses. 4. Localization of Brain function led to mapping the regions of the brain responsible for diff functions.  Gall and phrenology was precursor to this approach ( p. 18-19). Gall attempted to map personality traits onto diff areas of the skull, noting bumps and depressions.  Phrenology is debunked but led way for the study of the brain and its structures (ex, hypothalamus and its influence on motivational states). (hippocampus, amygdalin ->imp structure, neucleaus, locus coerulus, locus VIII. Flow of ideas about motivation: modern motivational theo are rooted in philosophical ideas and physiological discoveries. The dualistic theories of Descartes demonstrates the distinctiveness od human motivation, governed by free will but as well, governed by irrational, instinctive processes characteristic of lower animals. A continuity exists btw human and animal behaviour. A. William James and William McDougall advocated an instinct model for human and animal motivation. B. J.B. Watson, a behaviourist rejected the instinct notion for learning in favour of an S-R- analysis, opposing mentalistic approaches. C. Edward Thorndike using an S-R analysis emphasized the role of pleasurable csqs as accounting for motivated action and proposed the law of effect. The pleasure of sex resides in Hedonism and sensoy stimulation 16/05/2013 4:28:00 PM stimulus input physiological variables: genetic endowment deprivation hormonal activity noxious stimulation (can be channel thru various senses, unpleasant psychological variables: social cultural learning deprivation of learned reinforces incentives (desirable obj even tho those obj does not reduce our physiological needs) may be incentives for an indi but not for another indi when indi is no longer able to secure those remording xp, now indi xp deprivation intervening variable : MOTIVATION ( Hunger, Sex, Achievement, affiliation, power, competence, self-actualization) p5 (in empirical psy : var doit pouvoir etre manipulate, observable. ―happiness‖ cannot manipulate or observable response output automatic nervous system activity instrument activity ( goal-directed) -> not random persistence without reward ( the reward is the activity itself. Engaging in the acti = reward) consummatory activity ( goal-attaining) displaced (if can‘t achieve goal A, substitute with goal B), disguised, disruptive activity (fantasy. Substitute there are a number of secondary sub to our ultimate goal chapter 7: 1. Hedonism as seeking pleasure and avoidance of pain  A. early Greek philosophers such as Democritus and Epicurus during the Platonic era (429-347 BC) agreed we behave in ordered to achieve pleasure.  B. Hobbes (1588-1679) believed all actions are motivated by desire for pleasure and to avoid pain. [ human nature = very self centered, we are motivated n cooperated to achieve our goal, instrumental and pragmatic -> pessimistic view Rousseau – goodness of human being nut corrupted by society. opti view. Minimal amount of social intervention is best to maintain human goodness. Freud = Hobbian -> testify irrational structure of human nature. Human motivated by irrational + destructive sources)  C. Spencer ( 1820- 1903) influenced by Darwin proposed that pleasurable behaviours have survival value, are adaptive, have evolved, and that random responses that led to pain were reduced in probability. Spencer‘s approach was a forerunner of Thorndike‘s (1874-1949) Law of Effect in psychology  D. Troland (1932) believed that the nervous system is attuned to pleasurable and aversive events o 1. Beneception occurs when peasant feelings arise by stimuli o 2. Nociception occurs when unpleasant feeling arise o 3. Neutroception occurs when feelings are neither + or – (p 206-207)  E. Beebe-center (1932) said instructions can change the perceived pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli. Instructional set alters actions of sense organs rather than altering perception. 2. P.T, young : Sign, Intensity, Duration: research on food preferences led him to agree with Beebe-Center that there us a continuum with maximum negative affect at one end and maximum positive affect at the other end. For Young affective processes have three properties : Sign, Intensity, and Duration  a. sign is determined by whether the organism approaches (+) or avoids (-) the situation.  b. affective intensity is noted through a preference test the hedonically more intense is chosen over a less preferred one.  C. Hedonic duration reveals that some hedonic processes last briefly, while others outlast the stimulation.  D. Hedonic continuum represents the range of affective processes from a negative end (distress) to neutral to the positive end (delight). Young maintains that the nervous system is constructed to maximize positive affect (p.208). Organism learn behaviours that leas to positive affect and away from negative affect. Positive affect is associated with approach behaviours and negative affect with withdrawal. Affective processes activate and guide behaviour and affective processes lead to the development of stable motives. 3. Motivational influences of Sensations: Pfaffmann suggested that sensory stimulation is motivating and leads to approach or withdrawal. Research showed that hedonic intensity and sensory intensity are not equivalent. Recording of the chorda tympani – a cranial nerve sending taste info to the brain = showed that as salt concentration increased so does electrical activity of the nerve increase. However, hedonic value at first increases and then decreases as salt concentration becomes greater ( fig 7.2 o 109). ( stop here for chap 7) Chap 3 continuation III. Psychophysiological Measures: Arousal theory proposes to measure arousal by monitoring activity of the central nervous system ( CNS) and autonomic nervous system ( ANS). 1. Various types of arousal : i) behavioural by organism responding, ii) autonomic arousal by changes in bodily functioning ( ex heart rate) and iii) cortical arousal by desynchronized , beta wave activity. 2. Chemicals: (ex: atropine) produces EEG activity akin to sleep in cats and dogs, and yet animal responds normally. And, ( ex: physostigmine) produces EEG activity akin to being alert and animal behaves as if drowsy. Thus, arousal is multidimensional and relies on feedback from body system (p.67). 3. Correlation btw hormones and emotion; ex: adrenal hormone epinephrine may be related to anger and aggression; changes in ANS activity related to disgust, anger, fear; universal facial expressions by way of contraction of facial muscles serves as signals of emotion (p.67). 1. Sleep deprived indi for 48hrs leads to performance problems on complex task requiring attention and condition processing Sleep deprived also show increased suggestibility. 2. Why sleep? It is adaptive, removing us from situations when we are least efficient.  Circadian rhythms on a 24hr cycle and operate during sleep.  Animals who are prey sleep less and predators sleep more.  Whales and some bird species have unihemispheric slow-wave sleep where one half of the brain sleeps. 3. in humans sleep decreases with age from 14 to 16 hrs in infancy; 5yr olds, 11hrs; and by age 20, 6-7 hrs. Older indi report more awakenings in the night and insomnia, shorter and more fragmented sleep, go to sleep earlier, and break-up 7hr cycle into several shorter episodes ( naps, p.69) V. Stages of Sleep: defined by electrical activity of the brain thru 5 stages of sleep. 1. Alpha activity relaxed wakefulness occurs before stage 1: irregular low amplitude waves for 10-15mins. And accounts for 5% of sleep. 2. Stage 2: with sleep spindles and K-Complexes and accounts for 50% of sleep. 3. Stage 3: delta waves large and slow and accounts for 6% of sleep and as these waves increase 4. Stage 4: slow high-amplitude waves and accounts for 14% of sleep for 30-45 mins and the EEG pattern goes to stage 3, then to stage 2 and finally 5. stage 5: a mix of theta, beta, and alpha waves. Muscle tone is low and REM takes over when dreaming occurs and accounts for 25% of sleep ( p69- 71). 6. Sleep stage 1-4 are NREM slow wave sleep and stage 5 is correlated with dreaming. REM dreams are bizarre, emotionally loaded and lifelike, and thus: a. Inhibition of motor neurons and loss of muscle tone is best indication of REM – dream sleep, which normally occurs about once every 90 mins and REM periods become longer throughout the night so by morning such REM sleep can be as long as an hour, and thus b. Cortical activity in Rem is similar to stage 1 sleep with a mixture of theta and beta waves and person is paralyzed even though cortical activity is as if the person is awake and this has been called Paradoxical sleep. Newborns spend 70% of time in REM and REM declines to about 30% at age 6 months. Sleep of kittens, puppies and rat pups is 100% REM and may indicate periods of neuronal organization within the brain. A. Dreams: on average 100 mins per night in dreaming from brief to dreams of one hour.  A. dreams not usually emotional; however, when present, emotion is negative o Early night dreams draw on events of the day and o Late night dreams draw on stored memories.  B. middle age adults show less aggressiveness, friendliness, emotion as compared to younger adults.  C. REM sleep changes with age and becomes less stable. STRESS: Selye defined as follows: a non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it.  A. Stressor is a demand that moves the body away from an optimal level of functioning (homeostasis) and the same concept may apply to psychological  Conditions that may influence stress response are: the actual demand it places on the person.  Those who have some control react less strongly to stress and stress may be reduced by one‘s personal values (p.82) -> there are individual perception of stress. 1. Systematic and Psychological Stress: stress challenges integrity of the body and mind.  Anticipation of an event is stressful as with experienced parachutists.  Emotion is a sign of stress as is disruption of ongoing behaviour and  Moderate amounts of stress improve performance (see Yerkes- Dodson law p.62). (too much arousal ->stress->reduce performance) 2. Endocrine System and Stress: p77+79+81+85 ->not imp Glands throughout the body release hormones throughout the body and the major gland is the Pituitary at the base of the brain. It coordinates its activity with a brain structure, the Hypothalamus and releases (p.65) hormones to activate the Pituitary. A second major gland is the Adrenal gland. (p.83)  The adrenal cortex releases hydrocorticoids, and the major secretion is cortisol.  The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine (Epi) and nor- epinephrine. B. GAS: General Adaptation Syndrome reveals a common set of responses to any stressor, irrespective of the source.  Selye discovered that injecting rat subjects with ovarian or placental hormones caused a series of changes, including enlargement of the adrenal cortex, shrinkage of the thymus gland and lymph nodes, and ulceration of the stomach. Any noxious or foreign material caused the same effects. C. 3 stages of the reaction to stress: I) Alarm, ii) Resistance, iii) exhaustion i. Alarm: body mobilized for action with corticoids and Epi secreted by adrenal medulla and there is acceleration of breathing heart rate, blood pressure, and resistance initially falls below normal and then moves well above normal. Ii. Resistance: processes accelerated at Alarm stage return to normal; corticoid levels decrease and body mobilizes area where stressor is focused. If local defenses are inadequate or fail to limit stressor to final stage is reached. Iii. Exhaustion: reaction to stressor moves from local to general, corticoid levels rise again, and 3. Life Change, Stress, and Illness: Meyer‘s research earliest attempt to correlate life change as a stressor and subsequent illness; physical and/or psychological;. Hinkle found that illness tended to cluster around certain periods in one‘s life when the social environment or interpersonal relationships make large demands (p.86).  People who were emotionally insulated, ie, were able to step- back from emotional events and keep events in perspective fared better. A. Social Readjustment Scale: how may events within a short period of time and the nature of the event correlated with illness.  Retrospective studies provided information on this relationship (p.86)  Prospective studies in which individual responds to recent life changes and then questioned again later. Prospective studies are an attempt to predict future health changes. Buffering effect : how we cope with stress: list of buffers - personality style (hardiness, - social support - expressive style of humor - explanatory style: pessimistic vs optimistic - knowledge – the more u know what is opposing the better - meditation - looking beyond the moment – realizing that this is short term Ch.5 photocopy- Motivation 16/05/2013 4:28:00 PM Concept of drive: Introduced originally by Freud and Woodforth in early 1900s and replaced concept of instinct. Drive refers to an energized state arising out of need that propels organisms toward a goal that satisfies the need and reduces the drive. Drive: Arises out of specific need. Drive is channeled into general increase(arousal) in behaviour that brings organism into contact with objects that may satisfy need Drive induces responses that reduce need and drive(Drive Reduction Theory of reinforcement) Responses that lead to drive reduction are learned modes of conduct. Early formulations: Freud in early 1900s used (defined) drive concept (Trieb) as a moving force; as energy that arouses organism and initiates behaviour. Drive(D) as psychic energy that accumulates in the personality structure of the ID. Pressure builds and requires release. …………………….???? Why this reduction in energy? Energy beyond a certain point is unpleasant since organism governed by ―principle of constancy.‖ -Reduce excitation in nervous system this is pleasurable. Increase in excitation is unpleasurable, if past a certain extent.( However excitation can also be pleasurable) 3. Freud said moving force( drive) has four characteristics: A. Pressure is strength of force and stronger the force the more motivated. B. Aim C. Object of moving force may be internal or external to individual. Object may change in course of life but moving force remains the same. Fixation of an object or restricted range of objects may occur. D. Source of moving force is the need (bodily deficit from which too much excitation- hunger, thirst, fatigue, etc., arises). E. Freud‘s model: Need--- Psychic D Energy---B—goal---Satisfaction through need and drive reduction. 4. Two classes of moving forces: Life and death. Life force: Psychic energy that powers it is Eros. Life force consists of reproductive, sexual and life affirming functions. Libido is name of sexual force. Before puberty libido is separated into different stages( psycho- sexual) representing different zones of body. At puberty and after, the separate stages are fused into one: Genital and libido shifts to interactions that reproduce and affirm life. Yet, trauma may lead to displacement of libido onto inappropriate objects and fixation at earlier, immature stages of psychosexual development. Death force: Psychic energy that powers it, is called Thanatos. Here the drive is to reduce energy to zero. Aggressive behaviour is an indication of death force( being aggressive can lead to destructive actions/ behaviours) and is a compromise between life and death forces locked in perpetual conflict. Forces throughout life do not change. What changes, is the expression and objects of those forces. A force may be reversed: that is the aim is altered from active( inflicting pain-sadism) to passive(receiving pain-masochism) A force may turn round: the object changes from others(sadism) to one self(masochism). A force may be repressed or resisted to the point that it is not recognized, as in being contained in the unconscious. The energy of force is gotten-rid of, rather it is expressed in other(neurotic) ways. Since forces may undergo modifications of expression, there is not a one-to- one correspondence between behaviours and the motives underlying them. Yet, some displacements may be beneficial, such as channeling forces into creative endeavours or altruistic patterns. 5. Criticisms of Freud’s Theory: a. Theory is empirically weak; relies on clinical evidence and interpretation b. Theory makes for a number of possible interpretations of same phenomenon. c. Theory cannot predict behaviour- theory explains behaviour after the fact and cannot predict behaviour 6. Drive revisited: a. Drive is motivational construct associated with concept of homeostasis: When there is inbalance, organism is motivated to take action to correct imbalance. Drive is seen as tied to bodily needs. Organic deficiency or excess motivates organism to bring body back into balance(homeostasis). b. Drive concept also necessary because some needs exist without activating drive, and some drives exist even though no need exists in the sense that the absence of fulfillment is life threatening c. Finally, all drives energize behaviour—the presence of a drive causes the organism to do something, and behaviour that reduces needs reduce the drive (organism becomes inactive) >Homeostasis. 7. Drive revived: i) Drive replaced instincts approaches to motivation. ii) Drive, like instinct concept is biologically based. iii) Drive, unlike instinct concept, had identifiable physiological basis. E.g. Canon(1920s) said that hunger drive results from dry mouth. However, researchers showed that removal of stomach and organism still hungry, and let organism drink and have water removed and organism still thirsty. Thus, the search for central determinants of drive, such as the role of hypothalamus, and other brain structures, in biological motivation. iv. Richter‘s work showed that there is a correlation between drive and activity. Working with sex hormones, he showed a predictable relationship estrus cycle(controlled by hormones) and increased activity levels. This relationship held for hunger and thirst as well. Operating from an evolutionary perspective, Richter hypothesized that organisms that became active in a drive state would more likely survive than those who remained inactive. v. Warden’s work : Examine different drive states and make comparisons between the different motivational states . A. Warden used obstruction box: Crossing an electrified grid floor to measure strength of drive states such as hunger, thirst, exploration, sex, maternal behaviour. Motives were established through deprivation, and as deprivation becomes more severe the number of grid crossings increases up to a point beyond which the crossings begin to become fewer even though deprivation time is lengthened (see figure. 5.2, p. 139). Thus, the independent variable, is length of deprivation to establish motive state, and the dependent- behavioural- variable, is number of grid crossings as a function of deprivation (length of motivation). B. Thus, Warden was able to operationally define drive or motive state in terms of actual deprivation time, and measure the motive in terms of behaviour change- number of times crossing the grid. Drive is given empirical status as it is created and measured objectively. Drive is no longer defined in subjective, hypothetical terms. C. The drive state not only induced behaviour but so did the desirability (incentive value) of the object sought. Thus, the object sought has incentive value. Thus, incentive value may be greater than the actual deprivation. D. The effects of learning are noted, because organisms learn about the value of certain goal objects. Organisms also learn not to cross the grid if the pain derived from such behaviour is too great. vi) Woodworth’s drive theory (early 1900’s): Distinguish between mechanisms of drive: How responses are performed and the forces (drives) that propel behaviour. All behaviour is motivated. Drives are activated by needs in terms of deficiency or excess. Needs activate drives and drives activate behaviour. All drives have 3 characteristics: - 1)Intensity: Drive can vary from low level to high level, and high levels of drive are accompanied by emotion ( See James, Schachter, Theories of Emotion). As drive intensity occurs organism becomes sensitized to cues associated with drive reduction. Direction: Drives have directionality in that they propel organisms to approach or perform those behaviours that will reach appropriate goal. Persistence: Organisms persist to reduce the distance between drive state and preferred state (homeostasis). Drive keeps organism on the task until the desired state is achieved. vii. Hull: Drive theory made room for motivational effects on behaviour, plus learning, plus incentives( attractiveness of goal object). Like Richter, Hull‘s model is couched in evolutionary terms: Organisms experience deprivation, and deprivation creates needs. Needs activates drives. Drives activate behaviour. Behaviour is goal directed. Achieving the goal has survival value. Hull acknowledged Darwin‘s influence. Cannon‘s notion of Homeostasis. Watson/ Skinner, Pavlov, and Thorndike in terms of the role conditioning on cementing the relationship between stimuli, responses, and their consequences. Thorndike‘s law of effect was important for habit information: The more often a stimulus- response connection is followed by reinforcement, the stronger the connection, the stronger the habit. Thus, drive motivates behaviour; behaviour leads to reinforcement; reinforcement strengthens the habit because it reduces the drive or motivational state to homeostasis. 2. Hull‘s formula: SeR=ShR*D. Thus, the potential to respond- SeR depends upon the strength of the D. and the multiplicative relationship between the two. chap5: Conditioning, learning, and motivation 16/05/2013 4:28:00 PM K = incentive of motivation (p142) SER = Habit Reward x Drive x K (incentive motivation) The … to response Potential to response depends on strength of habit Can manipulate strength of habit by reinforcement If new habit attain reward, it replaces old habit Habit which is very strong resist other habit Extinguish a habit by punish or ignore it. As soon as ―the child‖ tries something else, reward it -will stop doing what usually did and start doing new habit which provides reward. Incentive motivation = ho
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