Motivation 16/05/2013 4:28:00 PM
We can control our arousal
As arousal increase, there is optimal level (p62)
Extrovert lower physiological internal level of arousal than introvert
a/ Inverted U function: behaviour most efficient at optimal level of arousal.
Yerkes-Dodson Law:: a relationship btw level of arousal and efficient
Different tasks are related to arousal level and performance: higher arousal
for simple, habitual tasks and lower arousal for complex cognitive tasks.
Emotion and motivation related to activation of nervous system and there
are structures that come into play in emotion and motivation.
Separating the medulla from the spinal cord and organism goes
thru normal sleep-wake cycle ( encephala isole preparation).
Separation of the colliculi from the brainstem the organism is
deprived of crucial structures (medulla, pons, and reticular
activating system – RAS - ) and organism sleeps constantly (
cerveau isole preparation). (overactive RAS prob sleep, under
RAS – prob waking up)
D. RAS nerve cells in central core of brain stem ( fig 3.5 p 65) Moruzzi and
Magoun (1949) stimulated RAS electrically and changes in electrical activity
of cortex were noted in EEG-brain wave activity .
Synchronous – Alpha wave activity related to a relaxed organism.
Desynchronous – Beta wave activity related to alert, attentive,
E. RAS receives sensory input from external sensory system as well as
internal organs and muscles. :Lindsley ( 1951) cut all structures around the
RAS and preserved sleep-wake cycle. He cut the RAS and organism slept
constantly. RAS sends fibers to cortex. Thus, RAS arousal led to viewing
emotion (RAS can arouse cortex) and motivation as equivalent to cortical
II. Hebb’s Arousal Theory Sensory information serves 2 functions:
a. to provide info, a cue function and an arousal function. If cortex is not
aroused cue function has no effect.[(orienting reflex) we want to have
reason why we do this, think that etc…even create story not true]
b. sensory stimuli sent to cortex and RAS. The stimulus effect at RAS level is
to activate ―tone up‖ – the cortex so that stimulus information coming from
the thalamus can be processed. Motivation for Hebb is activation of the
c. cortex sends fibers down to RAS and stimulates it when internal and
external stimulation is low.
D. downstream connections from cortex to RAS may explain how thoughts,
images, memories can activate and motivate behaviours. While trying to
sleep if RAS is activated it in turn activates the cortex and sleep becomes
difficult – tossing and turning!
(james Lange theo, schafter singer theo, kannen p
( even external sensorial is constant sleepy, we can start our imagination
our recall past memo to activate cortex ->activate RAS)
(memo = psychological material that can activate RAS)
VII. Philosophical and physiological Theory:
A. Philosophical theory is derived from notions about what constitutes
human nature that was very much a part of Greed philosophy.
Eg, Aristotle propose: the soul ( mind) is free ( to make a choice, free mind
= indeterminism), thus free will; and the mind is a blank slate atbirth.
Hence, xperience and learning determines in part the mind‘s contents.
- contrary to Aristotle‘s position is Determinism: all action is caused
by antecedent variables.
- In the nature-nurture controversy, Aristotle is on the side of
nurture. 1. Descartes: a dualistic theory of human nature, whereby human
behaviour is partly the result of a free, rational soul (cognitive functions)
and partly the result of automatic (non-rational) processes of the body,
as evidenced by instincts. (animal don‘t choose to do this do that but
-Descartes‘ approach suggests a mechanical view of human nature as in
automatic reactions to stimuli and a cognitive view of the mind‘s
capacity to think and reason.
-Nature-nurture controversy is an outgrowth of Aristotle and Descartes‘
2. Locke introduced 2 imp ideas for psy:
I) role of sensory xp in determining contents of mind since mind at birth
is a blank slate, a ―tabula rasa‖ (ex Aris‘ position) and
II) Association of ideas in which sensation is converted into
ideas, the basic units of the mind.
- From sensation to perception of ‗what is‘ and thru reflection the
mind gains knowledge of its own operations.
- Complex ideas may be reduced to simple ideas and it is the mind‘s
capacity to associate one idea with another that accounts for the
formation of concepts and knowledge.
Functional autonomy of motives: motives bcome independent –
autonomous- of their orig biological sources. (assoc by continuity – 2
item appear close together if associate by time / space) (learn taste
- for ex, working to survive may come independent of the orig biological
necessity to (provide food and shelter to satisfy needs. Work for its ‗own
sake‘ so as to ‗achieve‘ may bcome separated from its orig biological source.
It bcomes an independent motive and forms the basis of achievement
motivation or effectance motivation.(I work, I get food. But now I work
also for enjoyment of work)
B. Physiological antecedents: 1. Galen (AD 129-199( proposed sensory-motor nerves and his
provided a basis of how interest in the nervous system influenced modern
Bell and Magendie in the 19 century showed how sensory-motor
connections in the nervous system form the basis of action.
Futhermore, the study of sensation (sensory) on the one hand, ans
responses (motor action) in the other led to stimulus-response (S-R)
psychology as an outgrowth of senrory-motor physiology.
2. Doctrine of specific nerve energies specifies that diff nerves are
responsible for diff sensations ( hot-cold, colors) and are based upon
sensory xp. The nervous syst organizes sensory xp and interprets it, which
gives rise to diff sensory xp.
3. Electrical Nature of nerve impulse was suggested by Galvani (18 ).
Activity of the nerve is electrical in nature and can be measured.
This was supported by DuBois-Reymond and Helmholtz (19 )
measuring the strength and speed of nerve impulses.
4. Localization of Brain function led to mapping the regions of the brain
responsible for diff functions.
Gall and phrenology was precursor to this approach ( p. 18-19).
Gall attempted to map personality traits onto diff areas of the skull,
noting bumps and depressions.
Phrenology is debunked but led way for the study of the brain and
its structures (ex, hypothalamus and its influence on motivational
states). (hippocampus, amygdalin ->imp structure, neucleaus,
locus coerulus, locus
VIII. Flow of ideas about motivation: modern motivational theo are
rooted in philosophical ideas and physiological discoveries. The dualistic
theories of Descartes demonstrates the distinctiveness od human
motivation, governed by free will but as well, governed by irrational,
instinctive processes characteristic of lower animals. A continuity exists btw
human and animal behaviour. A. William James and William McDougall advocated an instinct model for
human and animal motivation.
B. J.B. Watson, a behaviourist rejected the instinct notion for learning in
favour of an S-R- analysis, opposing mentalistic approaches.
C. Edward Thorndike using an S-R analysis emphasized the role of
pleasurable csqs as accounting for motivated action and proposed the law
of effect. The pleasure of sex resides in Hedonism and sensoy stimulation 16/05/2013 4:28:00 PM
noxious stimulation (can be channel thru various senses, unpleasant
social cultural learning
deprivation of learned reinforces
incentives (desirable obj even tho those obj does not reduce our
physiological needs) may be incentives for an indi but not for another indi
when indi is no longer able to secure those remording xp, now indi xp
intervening variable : MOTIVATION ( Hunger, Sex, Achievement,
affiliation, power, competence, self-actualization) p5 (in empirical psy : var
doit pouvoir etre manipulate, observable. ―happiness‖ cannot manipulate or
automatic nervous system activity
instrument activity ( goal-directed) -> not random
persistence without reward ( the reward is the activity itself. Engaging in the
acti = reward)
consummatory activity ( goal-attaining)
displaced (if can‘t achieve goal A, substitute with goal B), disguised,
disruptive activity (fantasy. Substitute
there are a number of secondary sub to our ultimate goal chapter 7:
1. Hedonism as seeking pleasure and avoidance of pain
A. early Greek philosophers such as Democritus and Epicurus
during the Platonic era (429-347 BC) agreed we behave in ordered
to achieve pleasure.
B. Hobbes (1588-1679) believed all actions are motivated by
desire for pleasure and to avoid pain.
[ human nature = very self centered, we are motivated n cooperated to
achieve our goal, instrumental and pragmatic -> pessimistic view
Rousseau – goodness of human being nut corrupted by society. opti view.
Minimal amount of social intervention is best to maintain human goodness.
Freud = Hobbian -> testify irrational structure of human nature. Human
motivated by irrational + destructive sources)
C. Spencer ( 1820- 1903) influenced by Darwin proposed that
pleasurable behaviours have survival value, are adaptive, have
evolved, and that random responses that led to pain were reduced
in probability. Spencer‘s approach was a forerunner of Thorndike‘s
(1874-1949) Law of Effect in psychology
D. Troland (1932) believed that the nervous system is attuned to
pleasurable and aversive events
o 1. Beneception occurs when peasant feelings arise by stimuli
o 2. Nociception occurs when unpleasant feeling arise
o 3. Neutroception occurs when feelings are neither + or – (p
E. Beebe-center (1932) said instructions can change the
perceived pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli. Instructional
set alters actions of sense organs rather than altering perception.
2. P.T, young : Sign, Intensity, Duration: research on food preferences
led him to agree with Beebe-Center that there us a continuum with
maximum negative affect at one end and maximum positive affect at the
other end. For Young affective processes have three properties : Sign,
Intensity, and Duration a. sign is determined by whether the organism approaches (+) or
avoids (-) the situation.
b. affective intensity is noted through a preference test the
hedonically more intense is chosen over a less preferred one.
C. Hedonic duration reveals that some hedonic processes last
briefly, while others outlast the stimulation.
D. Hedonic continuum represents the range of affective processes
from a negative end (distress) to neutral to the positive end
(delight). Young maintains that the nervous system is constructed
to maximize positive affect (p.208). Organism learn behaviours that
leas to positive affect and away from negative affect. Positive affect
is associated with approach behaviours and negative affect with
withdrawal. Affective processes activate and guide behaviour and
affective processes lead to the development of stable motives.
3. Motivational influences of Sensations: Pfaffmann suggested that
sensory stimulation is motivating and leads to approach or withdrawal.
Research showed that hedonic intensity and sensory intensity are not
equivalent. Recording of the chorda tympani – a cranial nerve sending
taste info to the brain = showed that as salt concentration increased so
does electrical activity of the nerve increase. However, hedonic value
at first increases and then decreases as salt concentration becomes
greater ( fig 7.2 o 109).
( stop here for chap 7)
Chap 3 continuation
III. Psychophysiological Measures: Arousal theory proposes to
measure arousal by monitoring activity of the central nervous system ( CNS)
and autonomic nervous system ( ANS).
1. Various types of arousal : i) behavioural by organism responding, ii)
autonomic arousal by changes in bodily functioning ( ex heart rate) and
iii) cortical arousal by desynchronized , beta wave activity. 2. Chemicals: (ex: atropine) produces EEG activity akin to sleep in cats
and dogs, and yet animal responds normally. And, ( ex: physostigmine)
produces EEG activity akin to being alert and animal behaves as if
drowsy. Thus, arousal is multidimensional and relies on feedback from
body system (p.67).
3. Correlation btw hormones and emotion; ex: adrenal hormone
epinephrine may be related to anger and aggression; changes in ANS
activity related to disgust, anger, fear; universal facial expressions by
way of contraction of facial muscles serves as signals of emotion (p.67).
1. Sleep deprived indi for 48hrs leads to performance problems on
complex task requiring attention and condition processing Sleep deprived
also show increased suggestibility.
2. Why sleep? It is adaptive, removing us from situations when we are
Circadian rhythms on a 24hr cycle and operate during sleep.
Animals who are prey sleep less and predators sleep more.
Whales and some bird species have unihemispheric slow-wave
sleep where one half of the brain sleeps.
3. in humans sleep decreases with age from 14 to 16 hrs in infancy; 5yr
olds, 11hrs; and by age 20, 6-7 hrs. Older indi report more awakenings in
the night and insomnia, shorter and more fragmented sleep, go to sleep
earlier, and break-up 7hr cycle into several shorter episodes ( naps, p.69)
V. Stages of Sleep: defined by electrical activity of the brain thru 5 stages
1. Alpha activity relaxed wakefulness occurs before stage 1: irregular low
amplitude waves for 10-15mins. And accounts for 5% of sleep.
2. Stage 2: with sleep spindles and K-Complexes and accounts for 50% of
3. Stage 3: delta waves large and slow and accounts for 6% of sleep and as
these waves increase
4. Stage 4: slow high-amplitude waves and accounts for 14% of sleep for
30-45 mins and the EEG pattern goes to stage 3, then to stage 2 and finally 5. stage 5: a mix of theta, beta, and alpha waves. Muscle tone is low and
REM takes over when dreaming occurs and accounts for 25% of sleep ( p69-
6. Sleep stage 1-4 are NREM slow wave sleep and stage 5 is correlated
REM dreams are bizarre, emotionally loaded and lifelike, and thus:
a. Inhibition of motor neurons and loss of muscle tone is best indication of
REM – dream sleep, which normally occurs about once every 90 mins and
REM periods become longer throughout the night so by morning such REM
sleep can be as long as an hour, and thus
b. Cortical activity in Rem is similar to stage 1 sleep with a mixture of theta
and beta waves and person is paralyzed even though cortical activity is as if
the person is awake and this has been called Paradoxical sleep. Newborns
spend 70% of time in REM and REM declines to about 30% at age 6
months. Sleep of kittens, puppies and rat pups is 100% REM and may
indicate periods of neuronal organization within the brain.
A. Dreams: on average 100 mins per night in dreaming from brief to
dreams of one hour.
A. dreams not usually emotional; however, when present, emotion
o Early night dreams draw on events of the day and
o Late night dreams draw on stored memories.
B. middle age adults show less aggressiveness, friendliness,
emotion as compared to younger adults.
C. REM sleep changes with age and becomes less stable.
STRESS: Selye defined as follows: a non-specific response of the body to
any demand made upon it.
A. Stressor is a demand that moves the body away from an optimal
level of functioning (homeostasis) and the same concept may apply
Conditions that may influence stress response are: the actual
demand it places on the person. Those who have some control react less strongly to stress and
stress may be reduced by one‘s personal values (p.82) -> there are
individual perception of stress.
1. Systematic and Psychological Stress: stress challenges integrity of the
body and mind.
Anticipation of an event is stressful as with experienced
Emotion is a sign of stress as is disruption of ongoing behaviour and
Moderate amounts of stress improve performance (see Yerkes-
Dodson law p.62). (too much arousal ->stress->reduce
2. Endocrine System and Stress: p77+79+81+85 ->not imp
Glands throughout the body release hormones throughout the body and the
major gland is the Pituitary at the base of the brain. It coordinates its
activity with a brain structure, the Hypothalamus and releases (p.65)
hormones to activate the Pituitary.
A second major gland is the Adrenal gland. (p.83)
The adrenal cortex releases hydrocorticoids, and the major
secretion is cortisol.
The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine (Epi) and nor-
B. GAS: General Adaptation Syndrome reveals a common set of
responses to any stressor, irrespective of the source.
Selye discovered that injecting rat subjects with ovarian or
placental hormones caused a series of changes, including
enlargement of the adrenal cortex, shrinkage of the thymus
gland and lymph nodes, and ulceration of the stomach. Any
noxious or foreign material caused the same effects.
C. 3 stages of the reaction to stress:
I) Alarm, ii) Resistance, iii) exhaustion i. Alarm: body mobilized for action with corticoids and Epi secreted by
adrenal medulla and there is acceleration of breathing heart rate, blood
pressure, and resistance initially falls below normal and then moves well
Ii. Resistance: processes accelerated at Alarm stage return to normal;
corticoid levels decrease and body mobilizes area where stressor is focused.
If local defenses are inadequate or fail to limit stressor to final stage is
Iii. Exhaustion: reaction to stressor moves from local to general, corticoid
levels rise again, and
3. Life Change, Stress, and Illness: Meyer‘s research earliest attempt to
correlate life change as a stressor and subsequent illness; physical and/or
psychological;. Hinkle found that illness tended to cluster around certain
periods in one‘s life when the social environment or interpersonal
relationships make large demands (p.86).
People who were emotionally insulated, ie, were able to step-
back from emotional events and keep events in perspective fared
A. Social Readjustment Scale: how may events within a short period of
time and the nature of the event correlated with illness.
Retrospective studies provided information on this relationship
Prospective studies in which individual responds to recent life
changes and then questioned again later. Prospective studies are
an attempt to predict future health changes.
Buffering effect : how we cope with stress: list of buffers
- personality style (hardiness,
- social support
- expressive style of humor
- explanatory style: pessimistic vs optimistic - knowledge – the more u know what is opposing the better
- looking beyond the moment – realizing that this is short term Ch.5 photocopy- Motivation 16/05/2013 4:28:00 PM
Concept of drive: Introduced originally by Freud and Woodforth in early
1900s and replaced concept of instinct. Drive refers to an energized state
arising out of need that propels organisms toward a goal that satisfies the
need and reduces the drive.
Drive: Arises out of specific need.
Drive is channeled into general increase(arousal) in behaviour that brings
organism into contact with objects that may satisfy need
Drive induces responses that reduce need and drive(Drive Reduction Theory
Responses that lead to drive reduction are learned modes of conduct.
Early formulations: Freud in early 1900s used (defined) drive concept (Trieb)
as a moving force; as energy that arouses organism and initiates behaviour.
Drive(D) as psychic energy that accumulates in the personality structure of
the ID. Pressure builds and requires release.
Why this reduction in energy? Energy beyond a certain point is unpleasant
since organism governed by ―principle of constancy.‖
-Reduce excitation in nervous system this is pleasurable. Increase in
excitation is unpleasurable, if past a certain extent.( However excitation can
also be pleasurable)
3. Freud said moving force( drive) has four characteristics:
A. Pressure is strength of force and stronger the force the more motivated.
C. Object of moving force may be internal or external to individual. Object
may change in course of life but moving force remains the same. Fixation of
an object or restricted range of objects may occur.
D. Source of moving force is the need (bodily deficit from which too much
excitation- hunger, thirst, fatigue, etc., arises).
E. Freud‘s model: Need--- Psychic D Energy---B—goal---Satisfaction through
need and drive reduction.
4. Two classes of moving forces: Life and death.
Life force: Psychic energy that powers it is Eros. Life force consists of
reproductive, sexual and life affirming functions. Libido is name of sexual
force. Before puberty libido is separated into different stages( psycho- sexual) representing different zones of body. At puberty and after, the
separate stages are fused into one: Genital and libido shifts to interactions
that reproduce and affirm life. Yet, trauma may lead to displacement of
libido onto inappropriate objects and fixation at earlier, immature stages of
Death force: Psychic energy that powers it, is called Thanatos. Here the
drive is to reduce energy to zero. Aggressive behaviour is an indication of
death force( being aggressive can lead to destructive actions/ behaviours)
and is a compromise between life and death forces locked in perpetual
Forces throughout life do not change. What changes, is the expression and
objects of those forces.
A force may be reversed: that is the aim is altered from active( inflicting
pain-sadism) to passive(receiving pain-masochism)
A force may turn round: the object changes from others(sadism) to one
A force may be repressed or resisted to the point that it is not recognized, as
in being contained in the unconscious.
The energy of force is gotten-rid of, rather it is expressed in other(neurotic)
Since forces may undergo modifications of expression, there is not a one-to-
one correspondence between behaviours and the motives underlying them.
Yet, some displacements may be beneficial, such as channeling forces into
creative endeavours or altruistic patterns.
5. Criticisms of Freud’s Theory:
a. Theory is empirically weak; relies on clinical evidence and interpretation
b. Theory makes for a number of possible interpretations of same
c. Theory cannot predict behaviour- theory explains behaviour after the fact
and cannot predict behaviour
6. Drive revisited:
a. Drive is motivational construct associated with concept of homeostasis:
When there is inbalance, organism is motivated to take action to correct
imbalance. Drive is seen as tied to bodily needs. Organic deficiency or
excess motivates organism to bring body back into balance(homeostasis). b. Drive concept also necessary because some needs exist without activating
drive, and some drives exist even though no need exists in the sense that
the absence of fulfillment is life threatening
c. Finally, all drives energize behaviour—the presence of a drive causes the
organism to do something, and behaviour that reduces needs reduce the
drive (organism becomes inactive) >Homeostasis.
7. Drive revived:
i) Drive replaced instincts approaches to motivation.
ii) Drive, like instinct concept is biologically based.
iii) Drive, unlike instinct concept, had identifiable physiological basis. E.g.
Canon(1920s) said that hunger drive results from dry mouth. However,
researchers showed that removal of stomach and organism still hungry, and
let organism drink and have water removed and organism still thirsty. Thus,
the search for central determinants of drive, such as the role of
hypothalamus, and other brain structures, in biological motivation.
iv. Richter‘s work showed that there is a correlation between drive and
activity. Working with sex hormones, he showed a predictable relationship
estrus cycle(controlled by hormones) and increased activity levels. This
relationship held for hunger and thirst as well. Operating from an
evolutionary perspective, Richter hypothesized that organisms that became
active in a drive state would more likely survive than those who remained
v. Warden’s work : Examine different drive states and make comparisons
between the different motivational states .
A. Warden used obstruction box: Crossing an electrified grid floor to
measure strength of drive states such as hunger, thirst, exploration, sex,
maternal behaviour. Motives were established through deprivation, and as
deprivation becomes more severe the number of grid crossings increases up
to a point beyond which the crossings begin to become fewer even though
deprivation time is lengthened (see figure. 5.2, p. 139). Thus, the
independent variable, is length of deprivation to establish motive state,
and the dependent- behavioural- variable, is number of grid crossings as a
function of deprivation (length of motivation).
B. Thus, Warden was able to operationally define drive or motive state in
terms of actual deprivation time, and measure the motive in terms of behaviour change- number of times crossing the grid. Drive is given
empirical status as it is created and measured objectively. Drive is no
longer defined in subjective, hypothetical terms.
C. The drive state not only induced behaviour but so did the desirability
(incentive value) of the object sought. Thus, the object sought has incentive
value. Thus, incentive value may be greater than the actual deprivation.
D. The effects of learning are noted, because organisms learn about the
value of certain goal objects. Organisms also learn not to cross the grid if
the pain derived from such behaviour is too great.
vi) Woodworth’s drive theory (early 1900’s):
Distinguish between mechanisms of drive:
How responses are performed and the forces (drives) that propel behaviour.
All behaviour is motivated.
Drives are activated by needs in terms of deficiency or excess.
Needs activate drives and drives activate behaviour.
All drives have 3 characteristics: - 1)Intensity: Drive can vary from low
level to high level, and high levels of drive are accompanied by emotion (
See James, Schachter, Theories of Emotion). As drive intensity occurs
organism becomes sensitized to cues associated with drive reduction.
Direction: Drives have directionality in that they propel organisms to
approach or perform those behaviours that will reach appropriate goal.
Persistence: Organisms persist to reduce the distance between drive state
and preferred state (homeostasis). Drive keeps organism on the task until
the desired state is achieved.
vii. Hull: Drive theory made room for motivational effects on behaviour, plus
learning, plus incentives( attractiveness of goal object). Like Richter, Hull‘s
model is couched in evolutionary terms: Organisms experience
deprivation, and deprivation creates needs. Needs activates drives. Drives
activate behaviour. Behaviour is goal directed.
Achieving the goal has survival value.
Hull acknowledged Darwin‘s influence.
Cannon‘s notion of Homeostasis. Watson/ Skinner, Pavlov, and Thorndike in terms of the role conditioning on
cementing the relationship between stimuli, responses, and their
Thorndike‘s law of effect was important for habit information: The more
often a stimulus- response connection is followed by reinforcement, the
stronger the connection, the stronger the habit.
Thus, drive motivates behaviour; behaviour leads to reinforcement;
reinforcement strengthens the habit because it reduces the drive or
motivational state to homeostasis.
2. Hull‘s formula: SeR=ShR*D. Thus, the potential to respond- SeR depends
upon the strength of the D. and the multiplicative relationship between the
two. chap5: Conditioning, learning, and motivation 16/05/2013 4:28:00 PM
K = incentive of motivation (p142)
SER = Habit Reward x Drive x K (incentive motivation)
The … to response
Potential to response depends on strength of habit
Can manipulate strength of habit by reinforcement
If new habit attain reward, it replaces old habit
Habit which is very strong resist other habit
Extinguish a habit by punish or ignore it. As soon as ―the child‖ tries
something else, reward it -will stop doing what usually did and start doing
new habit which provides reward.
Incentive motivation = ho