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PSYC 3140 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Female Sexual Arousal Disorder, Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder, Fatal Familial Insomnia

Course Code
PSYC 3140
Stephen Fleming
Study Guide

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PSYC3140 Exam 2
Chapter 8: Eating and Sleeping Disorders
Eating disorders: Overview
Increase during 1950s and early 1960s
Bulimia nervosa: out of control eating episodes , or binges, followed by self-induced
vomiting, excessive use of laxatives or other attempts to “purge”
Anorexia nervosa: person eats nothing beyond minimal amounts of food
o Characterized by overwhelming, all-encompassing drive to be thin
o Highest mortality rate of any disorder
Rates for bulimia rose dramatically near late 1970s, may relate to increased prevalence of
dieting & preoccupation w/ body amongst young women & social pressure toward
consumption, food availability
William Gull: first used term anorexia nervosa: 1872
Bulimia described in 1970s, when eating were included for 1st time as separate group in
o Previously classified in infancy, child & adolescence disorders
Increase tends to be culturally specific ( young females , but evidence suggests is now
Bulimia Nervosa
The hallmark of bulimia is eating a larger amt of food (mostly junk) than most ppl would
eat under similar circumstances
As important as amount of food eaten is fact that eating is experienced as out of control
Another criterion: person attempts to compensate for binge eating by purging
o Self-induced vomiting immediately after
o Laxatives (women who use more impulsive than those who do not)
o Diuretics (greatly increase frequency of urination)
o Prolonged fasting
o Excessive exercise
Subtyped in DSM-IV into purging and non-purging type (rare)
Those who purged developed disorder @ younger age, higher rates of comorbid
depression, anxiety disorder, alcohol abuse
Medical consequences:
o Salivary gland enlargement due to repeated vomiting
o Continued vomiting=>chemical imbalance of bodily fluids e.g. sodium &
potassium levels=electrolyte imbalance
o Cardiac arrhythmia, renal and kidney failure
o Intestinal problems e.g. severe constipation/ colon damage
Associated psychological disorder

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PSYC3140 Exam 2
o Anxiety disorders. E.g. Social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder
o Mood disorders, esp depression (follows bulimia and may be reaction to it),
borderline personality disorder, substance abuse (nicotine dependence common),
impulse control
Anorexia Nervosa
Major difference b/w this and bulimia is whether individual is successful @ losing weight
Ppl w. AN are proud of weight loss accomplishments and extraordinary control, unlike
ppl w/ BN who are ashamed of problem and LACK of control
BN more common than AN, but great overlap
Decreased body weight most notable feature of AN, but not core of disorder
Ppl w/ AN have intense fear of obesity and relentlessly pursue thinness
Caroline Davis: severe, almost punishing exercise common in AN
DSM IV: 2 subtypes of AN:
1. Restricting type: where ppl diet to limit calorie intake
2. Binge-eating/purging type: binge on small amts of food and purge excessively
and consistently
Person w/ AN never satisfied w/ weight loss, average=25-30% below normal body
Key criterion in AN=marked disturbance in body image: way person sees and feels abt
Some show increased interest in cooking & food
Medical consequences:
o Cessation of menstruation
o Dry skin, brittle hair/nails, sensitivity to or intolerance of cold temperatures
o Lanugo: downy hair on limbs and cheeks]vomiting=> electrolyte problems,
cardiac and kidney problems
Associated psyc disorders
o Anxiety and mood disorders
o E.g. Obssesive and compulsive disorder (individual engages in senseless.
Ritualistic behaviour to rid herself of unpleasant feeling of gaining weight)
o Substance abuse, suicide
Binge-eating disorder (BED)
Experience marked distress due to binge eating but do not engage in extreme
compensatory behaviours

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PSYC3140 Exam 2
Currently, BED in DSM-IV as potential new disorder, will be classified as separate
disorder in DSM 5
BED associated w/ more severe obesity
About half try dieting before bingeing and half binge then diet
BN only recognized as distinct disease in 1970s
About 95%=women, middle-upper class, same with AN
Age of onset-16-19 yrs
Immigrants to Western countries also develop
Men rated their actual size, ideal size and size most attractive to females as approx. equal
Women rated current figures as much heavier than ideal
Friendships contribute heavily to formation of body image concerns and eating habits
Strong relationship b/w dieting and bingeing
false-hope syndrome”: ppl’s false hopes abt self-change attempts initially strongly
reinforced, positive feelings and sense of control that ppl feel with initial success lead
them to continue pursuing unrealistic or impossible goals for weight loss
Evidence suggests strong genetic contribution to body size
Those w/ eating disorder display strong preoccupation w/ food, chronic dieters seem to
remember info better when it pertains to food
Typical anorexic’s family tends to be successful, hard-driving, concerned about external
appearances, eager to maintain harmony
Mothers of anorexic girls tend to be “society’s messengers” reinforce social expectations,
less satisfied with families and family cohesion
Biological dimensions
Eating disorders run in families, genetic component
Relatives of such patients are 4 or 5 times more likely to develop
Important study by Walter and Kendler: bulimia occurs in 23% identical twins, as
compared to 9% fraternal twins
Symptoms of eating disorders have partially genetic basis, body mass 57% heritable,
purging 42%, concern for overeating 20%
Hypothalamus plays important role: low levels of serotonin activity associated with
impulsivity in general and bingeing specifically
Role of exercise in maintaining AN: “activity anorexia” where excessive physical activity
can cause a loss of appetite
Psyc’l dimensions
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