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Health Psychology Exam Review.docx

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PSYC 3170
Aviva Goldberg

Health Psychology Exam Review Chapter 3Health BehavioursHealth promotion means being aware both of health habits that pose risks for future disease and of already existing risks such as the vulnerability of breast cancer It is a general philosophy that has at its core the idea that good health or wellness is a personal and collective achievementHealth behaviours are behaviours undertaken by people to enhance or maintain their healthA health habit is a health related behaviour that is firmly established and often preformed automatically without awarenessInstilling good health habits and changing poor ones is the task of primary preventionThe health locus of control is the perception that ones health is under personal control and is controlled by powerful others such as physicians or is determined by external factors including chanceSocialization is the process by which people learn the norms rules and beliefs associated with their family and society parents and social institutions are usually the major agents of socializationsA teachable moment refers to the fact that certain times are better than others for teaching a particular health practiceA window of vulnerability is the fact that at certain times people are more vulnerable to particular health problemsFear appeals are efforts to change attitudes by arousing fear to induce the motivation to change behaviours fear appeals are used to try to get people to change poor health habitsThe health belief model states that whether person practices particular health behaviour can be understood by knowing 2 factors whether the person perceives a personal health threat and whether the person believes that a particular health practice will be effective in reducing that threatThe prospect theory is the theory that different presentations of risk information will change peoples perspectives and actionsSelfefficacy is the belief that one is able to control ones practice of a particular behaviourThe theory of planned behaviour is derived from the theory of reasoned action this theoretical viewpoint maintains that a persons behavioural intentions and behaviours can be understood by knowing the persons attitudes about the behaviour subjective norms regarding the behaviour and the perceived behavioural control over that actionCognitive behavioural theory approaches to health habit modification change the focus to the target behaviour itself the conditions that elicit and maintain it and the factors that reinforce itSelfobservationselfmonitoring is accessing the frequency antecedents and consequences of target behaviour to be modifiedClassical conditioning is the pairing of a stimulus with an unconditioned reflex such that over time the new stimulus acquires a conditioned response evoking the same behaviour the process by which an automatic response is conditioned to a new stimulusOperant conditioning is the pairing of a voluntary nonautomatic behaviour to a new stimulus through reinforcement or punishmentModelling is a learning that occurs by virtue of witnessing another person performing behaviour Observation and subsequent modelling can be effective approaches to changing health habitsA discriminative stimulus is an environmental stimulus that is capable of eliciting a particular behaviourStimuluscontrol interventions are interventions designed to modify behaviour that involves the removal of discriminative stimuli that evoke a behaviour targeted for change and the substitution of a new discriminative stimuli that will evoke a desired behaviour Selfcontrol is a state in which an individual desiring to change behaviour learns how to modify the antecedents and the consequences of that target behaviourSelf reinforcement is systematically rewarding or punishing ones self to increase or decrease the occurrence of the target behaviourContingency contracting is when an individual forms a contract with another person such as a therapist detailing what rewardspunishments are contingent on nonperformanceperformance of behaviourCovert selfcontrol trains individuals to recognize and modify these internal monologues to promote health behaviour changeCognitive restructuring is a method for modifying internal monologues that has been widely used in the treatment of stress disordersSelftalk are internal monologues people tell themselves things that may underminehelp them implement appropriate health habitsBehavioural assignments are home practice activities that support the goals of a therapeutic intervention they are designed to provide continuity in the treatment of a behaviour problem and typically these assignments follow up points in the therapeutic sessionSocial skills trainingassertiveness training is part of the intervention package and is used to alter health habits they are techniques that train people how to be appropriately assertive in social situationsRelaxation training are procedures that help people relax they include progressive muscle relaxation and deep breathing they may also include guided imagery and forms of mediation or hypnosisThe broadspectrum cognitive behaviour therapy is the use of a broad array of cognitive behavioural intervention techniques to modify the individuals health behaviourAbstinence violation effect is a feeling of loss of control that results when a person has violated selfimposed rulesRelapse prevention is a set of techniques designed to keep people from relapsing to prior health habits after initial successful behaviour modification includes training in coping skills for high risk for relapse situations and lifestyle rebalancingLifestyle rebalancing is the long term maintenance of behaviour change that can be promoted by leading the person to make other health orientated changes in lifestyle
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