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Final

Health Psychology Exam Review.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3170
Professor
Aviva Goldberg
Study Guide
Final

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Health Psychology Exam Review
Chapter 3 - Health Behaviours:
- Health promotion means being aware both of health habits that pose risks for future disease
and of already existing risks, such as the vulnerability of breast cancer. It is a general philosophy
that has at its core the idea that good health, or wellness, is a personal and collective
achievement.
- Health behaviours are behaviours undertaken by people to enhance or maintain their health.
- A health habit is a health related behaviour that is firmly established and often preformed
automatically without awareness.
- Instilling good health habits and changing poor ones is the task of primary prevention.
- The health locus of control is the perception that one’s health is under personal control, and is
controlled by powerful others such as physicians or is determined by external factors including
chance.
- Socialization is the process, by which people learn the norms, rules, and beliefs associated with
their family and society, parents and social institutions are usually the major agents of
socializations.
- A teachable moment refers to the fact that certain times are better than others for teaching a
particular health practice.
- A window of vulnerability is the fact that at certain times people are more vulnerable to
particular health problems.
- Fear appeals are efforts to change attitudes by arousing fear to induce the motivation to change
behaviours; fear appeals are used to try to get people to change poor health habits.
- The health belief model states that whether person practices particular health behaviour can be
understood by knowing 2 factors, whether the person perceives a personal health threat and
whether the person believes that a particular health practice will be effective in reducing that
threat.
- The prospect theory is the theory that different presentations of risk information will change
people’s perspectives and actions.
- Self-efficacy is the belief that one is able to control one’s practice of a particular behaviour.
- The theory of planned behaviour is derived from the theory of reasoned action, this theoretical
viewpoint maintains that a person’s behavioural intentions and behaviours can be understood
by knowing the persons attitudes about the behaviour, subjective norms regarding the
behaviour and the perceived behavioural control over that action.
- Cognitive behavioural theory approaches to health habit modification change the focus to the
target behaviour itself, the conditions that elicit and maintain it and the factors that reinforce it.
- Self-observation/self-monitoring is accessing the frequency, antecedents and consequences of
target behaviour to be modified.
- Classical conditioning is the pairing of a stimulus with an unconditioned reflex, such that over
time the new stimulus acquires a conditioned response, evoking the same behaviour, the
process by which an automatic response is conditioned to a new stimulus.

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- Operant conditioning is the pairing of a voluntary, non-automatic behaviour to a new stimulus
through reinforcement or punishment.
- Modelling is a learning that occurs by virtue of witnessing another person performing behaviour.
Observation and subsequent modelling can be effective approaches to changing health habits.
- A discriminative stimulus is an environmental stimulus that is capable of eliciting a particular
behaviour.
- Stimulus-control interventions are interventions designed to modify behaviour that involves the
removal of discriminative stimuli that evoke a behaviour targeted for change and the
substitution of a new discriminative stimuli that will evoke a desired behaviour.
- Self-control is a state in which an individual desiring to change behaviour learns how to modify
the antecedents and the consequences of that target behaviour.
- Self- reinforcement is systematically rewarding or punishing one’s self to increase or decrease
the occurrence of the target behaviour.
- Contingency contracting is when an individual forms a contract with another person, such as a
therapist detailing what rewards/punishments are contingent on non-
performance/performance of behaviour.
- Covert self-control trains individuals to recognize and modify these internal monologues to
promote health behaviour change.
- Cognitive restructuring is a method for modifying internal monologues that has been widely
used in the treatment of stress disorders.
- Self-talk are internal monologues, people tell themselves things that may undermine/help them
implement appropriate health habits.
- Behavioural assignments are home practice activities that support the goals of a therapeutic
intervention, they are designed to provide continuity in the treatment of a behaviour problem,
and typically, these assignments follow up points in the therapeutic session.
- Social skills training/assertiveness training is part of the intervention package and is used to alter
health habits; they are techniques that train people how to be appropriately assertive in social
situations.
- Relaxation training; are procedures that help people relax, they include progressive muscle
relaxation and deep breathing, they may also include guided imagery and forms of mediation or
hypnosis.
- The broad-spectrum cognitive behaviour therapy is the use of a broad array of cognitive
behavioural intervention techniques to modify the individual’s health behaviour.
- Abstinence violation effect is a feeling of loss of control that results when a person has violated
self-imposed rules.
- Relapse prevention is a set of techniques designed to keep people from relapsing to prior health
habits after initial successful behaviour modification, includes training in coping skills for high
risk for relapse situations, and lifestyle rebalancing.
- Lifestyle rebalancing is the long term maintenance of behaviour change that can be promoted
by leading the person to make other health orientated changes in lifestyle.

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- The trans-theoretical model of behaviour change accounts for and analyses the stages of change
that people go through as they attempt to change the health behaviour and suggests treatment
goals and interventions for each stage.
- Social engineering involves modifying the social environment in ways that affect people’s ability
to practise the particular health behaviour.
Chapter 4 - Health-Enhancing Behaviours
- Aerobic exercise is a high intensity, long duration, and high endurance exercise, believed to
contribute to cardiovascular fitness and other positive health outcomes.
- Anorexia nervosa is a condition produced by excessive dieting and exercise that yields body
weight grossly below optimal level, most common among adolescent girls.
- Bulimia is an eating syndrome characterized by alternating cycles of binge eating and purging
through such techniques as vomiting or extreme dieting.
- A clinical breast exam is a thorough physical examination of the breast by a health care
professional to detect changes or abnormalities that could indicate the early signs of breast
cancer.
- Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat, believed to contribute to a variety of health
disorders including cardiovascular disease.
- The set point theory of weight is the concept that each individual has an ideal biological weight
that cannot be greatly modified.
- Sleep apnoea is an air pipe blockage that disrupts sleep and can compromise health. When
apnoea occurs, a sleeping person stops breathing sometimes for as long as 3 minutes, until
he/she suddenly wakes up gasping for air.
- Stress eating is eating in response to stress, approximately half the population increases eating
in response to stress.
Changing Behaviour The modern multifaceted approach:
- Traditional approaches are laws and organizational rules (they do work) and educational
motivational appeals (can result in new awareness and new skills).
- Both traditional approaches “tell” what to do, therefore get reactance.
- Law based strategies need to reflect community consensus, they require surveillance and
control, and do not allow freedom of choice.
- Educational/motivational appeals yield only short term results if any compete with other factors
in life and requires other competence to have a strong effect.
- Social marketing links target behaviour to existing needs, interests, etc.
- Personal participation links onto what the target group is willing to do.
- Local group/community participation consists of: the workplace, community groups,
organizations used to deliver and institutionalize programs, need to design programs to help the
organizations achieve their goals.
- Social marketing takes commercial/product marketing techniques and attempts to sell us health
(proper eating, exercise, etc).
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