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Study Guide

PSYC 3265- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 12 pages long!)

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3265
Professor
Norman Park

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York
PSYC 3265
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Lecture One: Notes
Introduction and History
Ebbinghaus: First person to scientifically study memory
Meory was’t studied efore eighaus but people did write about factors affecting memory
performance
o Attention and Rehearsal aids memory
Aristotle: Law of Associationism -> most important is the law of contiguity, two events or
experiences that happen close in time will come to be associated with each other
Romans studied more mnemonics to assist memory -> mnemonics generally remember
something new by pairing it with already known information
o Developed the method of loci, this method items are used to memorize particular
locations well known to the memorizer
Ebbinghaus published Memory: A contribution of Experimental Psychology
o First experimental study of memory, inspirited by Fechner’s work (psychophysical
study)
o Investigated the factors of forgetting and memory performance as a function of delay
between learning and test.
Experimental procedure of Ebbinghaus:
o Uses nonsense syllables to study acquisition and memory for brand-new stimuli
o Participant: Ebbinghaus
o Procedure: Presented nonsense syllables one at a time at a fixed rate of presentation.
Studied list until he could recall entire list in serial order without error (method of
complete mastery). After a delay, he learned the list.
Dependent variable: Saving score (the time saved in learning the list again, ex:
initially learned the list in 1500 sec, took 600 seconds to relearn the list, saving =
900/1500
Independent Variable: Time
Result: Forgetting curve
Vertical: Savings
X axis: Time delay
If you learnt he list immediately after the delay, you will have a higher score
Tradition of Ebbinghaus:
o Highly controlled experiments
o Simple stimuli
o Quantifiable dependent measures
Reaction to its restrictiveness
o Gesalt, Barlett, cognitivists
Cognitive tradition (William James)
o Bergson proposed two distinct type of memories: habits and memories
Ecological Validity
o Ebbinghaus tradition is concerned with unimportant problems with little applicability to
real world problems (Neisser, Crowder)
Neuropsychology: study of brain behavior relationships traditionally in neurological patients
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Gall: Theory of Cortical Localization
o Individual cognitive functions are mediated by specific brain regions
o No real evidence, just examination of bumps on skull which related to cognitive
functions
Broka:
o Ca’t speak ut a uderstad
o Language is localised in the inferior part of the left frontal love
o Language can be localized to a particular brain region and can be dissociated from other
cognitive function
Carl Wernicke: Ca’t uderstad laguage, ut a speak it.
o Damage on the left temporal cortex.
Lichtheim Model:
o
Logic of diagram makers
o Identify distinct syndromes, then attempt to link different syndromes from it
o Example: Broca Aphasia- speech is not fluent (short phrases)
Wernicks Aphasia: speech is fluent, but comprehension is impaired
o Criticism od diagram makers:
The functions that they hypothesized could be precisely localized, evidence do
not support this claim
Psychological concepts were in adequate. -> eg. Aphasia is a word based deficit.
Evidence shows that syntax is an important component of the deficit
Did not systematically observe the patients on which theoretical ideas were
based
Group study approach
o Neuropsychology approach
o Clinical observation became insufficient basis for theoretical speculation
Cognitive Neuropsychology
o Use information processing model to describe cognitive function
o Retrograde amnesia: Loss of memories acquired prior to onset of brain trauma
o Anterograde amnesia: Impaired ability to recall newly learned information
Ribot
o Looked at number of cases of retrograde amnesia following brain damage and head
trauma
o Memories were better retained more long ago then memories acquired more recently
Ribots law or Law of Regression
o Concludes: Memories requires time to be organized and consolidated
Alzeheimers
o Dimentia (now know as Alzheimers disease)
o Shown two important symptoms: Retrograde and anterograde amnesia
Memory
o Sematic knowledge about the world (all you would know)
o Who am I? if you have no memory of the events that you experienced then it would be
difficult to answer that
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
[PSYC 3265] Comprehensive fall guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com Lecture One: Notes Introduction and History • Ebbinghaus: First person to scientifically study memory • Me▯ory was▯’t studied ▯efore e▯▯i▯ghaus but people did write about factors affecting memory performance o Attention and Rehearsal aids memory • Aristotle: Law of Associationism -> most important is the law of contiguity, two events or experiences that happen close in time will come to be associated with each other • Romans studied more mnemonics to assist memory -> mnemonics generally remember something new by pairing it with already known information o Developed the method of loci, this method items are used to memorize particular locations well known to the memorizer • Ebbinghaus published Memory: A contribution of Experimental Psychology o First experimental study of memory, inspirited by Fechner’s work (psychophysical study) o Investigated the factors of forgetting and memory performance as a function of delay between learning and test. • Experimental procedure of Ebbinghaus: o Uses nonsense syllables to study acquisition and memory for brand-new stimuli o Participant: Ebbinghaus o Procedure: Presented nonsense syllables one at a time at a fixed rate of presentation. Studied list until he could recall entire list in serial order without error (method of complete mastery). After a delay, he learned the list. ▪ Dependent variable: Saving score (the time saved in learning the list again, ex: initially learned the list in 1500 sec, took 600 seconds to relearn the list, saving = 900/1500 ▪ Independent Variable: Time ▪ Result: Forgetting curve • Vertical: Savings • X axis: Time delay ▪ If you learnt he list immediately after the delay, you will have a higher score • Tradition of Ebbinghaus: o Highly controlled experiments o Simple stimuli o Quantifiable dependent measures • Reaction to its restrictiveness o Gesalt, Barlett, cognitivists • Cognitive tradition (William James) o Bergson proposed two distinct type of memories: habits and memories • Ecological Validity o Ebbinghaus tradition is concerned with unimportant problems with little applicability to real world problems (Neisser, Crowder) • Neuropsychology: study of brain behavior relationships traditionally in neurological patients find more resources at oneclass.com
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