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PSYC 4060- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 45 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 4060
Professor
Gary Turner
Study Guide
Final

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York
PSYC 4060
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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1
Chapter 7: COGNITIVE THERAPY
Overview
People respond to life events through a combination of cognitive/ affective/ motivational/ and
behavioral responses
Aims to adjust information processing and start positive change in all systems through the cog.
System
Collaboratively, therapist and patient examine the patient’s beliefs about: him/ herself/ other people
and the world
Basic Concepts
Thought of as a theory, system of strategies, and a series of techniques
Theory based on: idea that the processing of info is crucial for the survival of any organism
If we can’t take in relevant information, synthesize it, formulate a plan of action…we would
soon die or be killed
Each system- cognitive, behavioral, affective, and motivationalis composed of schemas
Schemas, contain people’s perceptions of themselves and others and of their goals and expectations,
memories, fantasies, previous learning
In certain disorders, people have a negative bias…including a negative view of self
Cognitive vulnerabilities, certain attitudes or core beliefs that predispose people under the influence
of certain life situations…to interpret their experiences in a biased way
E.g. a person who believes a minor loss= major deprivation… may think smallest loss is a big
thing
E.g. a person who feels vulnerable to sudden death, can think any small physiological change is
serious
CTheory believe all systems act together as a Modes, networks of cognitive, affective, motivational,
and behavioral schemas…compose personality and interpret ongoing situations
Some modes like, anxiety, are primal…meaning that they are universal and tied to survival
Primal modes are continuous
Conscious thinking can override primal thinking…making it more flexible
Modes such as: conversing or studying are minor and under conscious control
Strategies
Collab. Between patient and therapist to explore bias interpretations…and try to modify them,
chiefly through logical examination and behavioral experiments
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Collab. Empiricism, views patient as a scientist who lives by interpreting stimuli…but who has been
skewed in his or her own information-gathering
Therapist asks questions to understand patients POV, not just to change patients mind
Guided discovery, finding what threads run through the patient’s current misconceptions and
beliefs…linking them to relevant experiences in the past
Both strategies are used via Socratic dialogue (questioning that uncovers patient’s views, and shows
their adaptive/maladaptive features)
1. Asking informational questions
2. Listening
3. Summarizing
4. Asking analytic questions
“how does this new info fit with your belief that you can do anything right?”
CT aims to reduce cog. distortions and biased judgments
Shifting info processing to a more “neutral” condition…so events are evaluated in a balanced
way
3 approaches used to treat dysfunctional modes
1. Deactivate them
2. Modify their content and structure
3. Construct more adaptive modes to neutralize them
Techniques
Primarily directed at correcting errors and biases in information processing and modifying the core
beliefs that promote faulty conclusions
Focus on finding and testing patients beliefs…exploring their origins and basis…correcting them if
they fail…and problem solving
E.g. some beliefs are tied to one’s culture, gender role, religion and SES
Therapy should be directed toward problem solving with an understanding of how these
beliefs influence the patient
Uses techniques such as: skills training, role-playing, behavioral rehearsal, and exposure therapy
Other Systems
CT maintains that the thoughts contributing to a patient’s distress are not deeply buried in the
unconscious
CT is highly structured and usually short term…Usually lasts 12-16 weeks for treatment
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