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Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

Mid-Term Exam Review SOSC 1000 6/13/2013 11:17:00 AM Note: I suggest you read from the pages I have noted beside each point to get a better understanding of things. I wrote out simplified versions but it would be beneficial to look over the pages. PART A) Define (who, what, when, why) and explain the significance of (how) of the following terms: 1. Thomas Hobbes (Shusky reading, page 30-32 course kit) o Who: 17 Century thinker o Where: England, mid 1600s o What: Explored nature of human condition, believed human behaviour should be studied, not taken for granted. Also believed that humans naturally tend to compete, in continual state of war, and only by subjecting themselves to a common power could they live in reasonable security. People should enter into a social contract, agreeing to limit personal freedom in order to have social stability. o Why: Enlightenment, move away from Roman and Greek classical thinking to “People should think for themselves; Strife between England and France, social and political unrest; questioning the system (Catholics vs. Protestants). o Significance: His ideas lead to other thinkers critique and discussion over the matter of human autonomy, and ability to shape their own destinies (including fraternity, equality, right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness constitutional rights, charter of rights etc . are based on this!). Before this discussion came up- the church and monarchies enforced the notion of fixed, God-given human condition and behaviour (people are where they are in the hierarchy because God wanted it that way).  His ideas lead John Locke to come up with counter ideas (he did not agree with Hobbes’ absolutist theory). He explored rights of individuals, position of the individual in society- “political power is only justified by the public good”- property rights more priority than government’s rights.  People were starting to disagree with King’s divine right to rule- and so the monarchs strengthened themselves by teaming up with powerful merchants- expanded trade and unified economy- merchants financed the kings army- start of mercantilism (useful doctrine in the colonial era). 2. Immiseration (Hielbroner) o Who/what: Marxist theory- the nature of capitalist production logically requires an ever greater reduction in real wages and worsening of working condition for the proletariat. o Significance: Marx argued that the very nature of capitalism would render a proletarian revolution inevitable. The more capital is accumulated, the more the worse the working conditions for the worker, making his life miserable- which will lead to them speaking out against this system eventually. o “…all means for the development of production undergo a dialectical inversion so that they become a means of domination and exploitation of the producers; they distort the worker into a fragment of a man, they degrade him to the level of an appendage of a machine, they destroy the actual content of his labour by turning it into a torment, they alientate from him the inllectial potentials of the labour process, transform his life into working- time, and his wife and child beneath the wheels of the juggernaut of capital. But all methods of the production of surplus value are at the same time methods of accumulation, and every extension of accumulation becomes, conversely, a means for the development of these methods. It follows therefore that in proportion as capital accumulates, the situation of the worker, be his payment high or low, must grow worse. – Karl Marx, Das Kapital, 1867. 3. Dominant Ideology (Marchak page 63, 68) o Who: Marxist theory, but mentioned in Marchak reading. o What: A Particular set of ideas, perceptions, values and beliefs which is most widely shared and has the greatest impact on social action at any particular time in any particular society. The value-system held by the majority of a group/society, which frames how the majority of t
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