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Future of Work Review.rtf

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1510
David Langille

TERMS AND THEORIES Austerity: in economics, refers to a policy of deficit-cutting by lowering spending via a reduction in the amount of benefits and public services provided How it relates to the course - Downsizing/Austerity means early (forced) retirement for the baby boomers. Unsure if there will be good jobs in the service sector in the future because businesses may pressure reduced government spending to provide more corporate tax cuts and because they caused a recession. The minimum wage is also a tool that encourages austerity. Bad Jobs: a bad job is one that is alienating, authoritarian, unsafe, and precarious. Precarious work involves low pay, part-time or highly variable hours, and no benefits or pensions. How it relates to the course - Increased health problems are seen among workers who experience high demands but have little control over how to meet these demands. High strain jobs are more common among low-income women working in sales and the service sector. Low income plus low power can result in psychosocial stress, increased morbidity (sickness) and increased mortality (death). Business Cycle: known as cycles of growth and recession. Refers to economy-wide fluctuations in production or economy activity over several months or years How it relates to the course - Affects employment and the availability of good jobs and sometimes jobs in general. Most social indicators (mental health, crimes, and suicides) worsen during economic recessions. Periods of economic stagnations are painful to many who lose their jobs. Canadian Council of Chief Executives: 150 CEO’s from the top transnational corporations. They are the most powerful interest group in the country. Their goals are to make governments serve the needs of businesses and to work in partnership – with the state as a junior partner. How it relates to the course - They seek less government which means less spending on education and health care. The CCCE are getting richer while the incomes of regular Canadians are falling. The CCCE also opposed the Kyoto Accords (aimed at fighting global warming) Capitalism: a term used to describe key aspects of the economic and social organization of the productive enterprise How it relates to the course - Capitalism creates inequality – a measure of the disparity between rich and poor. “If I’m an employer, I can profit by paying you less.” Majority of wealth 1 is held by the top %, while the rest share little amount of money left. Walmart is essentially a bubble within a capitalism society – individuality has to be crushed to be successful. Work conditions during the Karl Marx time was so alienating and dehumanizing that it was predicted people would try to replace capitalism with more of a social system. Capitalism is focused on power, exploitation, inequality, on conflict and control. Cyclical Changes: cycles of growth and recession that occurs due to the business cycle How it relates to the course - The cyclical changes in the economy can cause unemployment. At a time where the economy is low, there is less of an opportunity for people to find jobs. These jobs might not be available, be taken away from current workers, or be outsourced. When the economy is up, however, the effects may work the other way. Discrimination: practices and attitudes that limit someone’s rights to the opportunities available – because of attributable rather than actual characteristics. Two types of discrimination – (1) intentional discrimination = racism, and (2) by-product of systems and procedures = systemic. E.g. failure to recognize skills, failure to see beyond disability, give preferences to others How it relates to the course - Majority of Canada are minority citizens. If they are treated unfairly then it means there is a great amount of racialized workers. This results in a lot of people being forced into precarious work situations, which even then may keep them below the poverty line. Employment Equity: a strategy to eliminate the effects of systemic discrimination and allow previously excluded groups to compete for jobs. Suggests everyone should be treated fairly in recruitment, hiring, promotions, training, etc. There are four target groups: women, visible minorities, aboriginal people, and those with disabilities How it relates to the course - 1986 employment equity act. Employers have to remove barriers affecting the four target groups. Also establishes targets and timetables to achieve a workforce that represents labour pool. Seeks equality in the workplace, improves human resource practices, and narrows the wage gap. Fordism/Fordist Compromise: Fordism is a system of manufacturing which involves large-scale mass-production of commodities for national and global markets, divisions of labour, de-skilling of workers, and repetitive tasks. Fordist compromises were that the capitalists were in control of the workplace, unions gain legal recognition and labour codes, and unions purge or marginalize radicals Gender Wage Gap: there is a gender wage gap because of wage 2 discrimination and because of occupational segmentation (job ghettos). Women who work full-time for entire year earn 70% of what men would earn. Employment disparities are growing among women. There are fewer good jobs, and if you are struck in a precarious job you won’t make more money How it relates to the course - These factors may influence a worker’s productivity and thus his or her earnings. Diffe Glass Ceiling: an invisible barrier that doesn’t allow women to advance to the top of their careers How it relates to the course - Women sometimes don’t have the ability to choose between work and family due to financial necessity and inflexible work without childcare and with discrimination. They run up against glass ceilings. Employers are biased when they have children, and they rarely get promoted Globalization: globalization typically refers to four interrelated changes. Economic changes include the internationalization of production, the harmonization of tastes and standards and the greatly increased mobility of capital and of transnational corporations> Ideological changes emphasize investment and trade liberalization, deregulation and private enterprise. New information and communication technologies that shrink the globe signal a shift from goosd to services. Finally, a cultural change involve trends toward a universal culture and the erosion of the nation state How it relates to the course - In the context of globalization and the permanent net loss of jobs, especially good jobs, the new insecurity results from an even greater imbalance in the shift of power to employers. Under globalization, retail- dominated supply chains lead the way, setting the parameters for manufacturers and maintaining the upper hand in global transactions – change from push (manufacturers produce goods and sell to retailers who market them) production to pull (retailers decide what they will sell and dictate their orders to manufacturers) production. Inequality: expresses the relationship between the rich and the poor. Helps explain the connection between the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer. Inequality can deal with gender, disabilities, job availability, hours, discrimination, etc. How it relates to the course - Inequality is bad for our health – causes crime, stress, and pain. Women face inequality because of the combination of capitalism and patriarchy (male domination over women). Job Ghetto: smaller profit margins, unhealthy working environments, more intense competition, greater vulnerability to economic cycles, low-paying jobs, and workers easily replaceable – generally, a precarious job. 3 How it relates to the course - Female job ghettos typically offer little economic security and little opportunity for advancement. Work is often unpleasant, boring, and sometimes physically taxing. Very difficult to progress on the work ladder. When women are not fluent in English they may be put into a job ghetto. Also, job ghettos increase the gender wage gap. Keynesianism: a prescriptive or normative economic stance introduced by John Maynard Keynes, according to which the state should actively stimulate economic growth and improve stability in the private sector through interest rates, taxation, and public projects. How it relates to the course - Focuses on stimulating demand for goods and services, and thereby creating jobs NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement – committed Canada to a policy of more open, less regulated markets. It is believed that free markets will generate economic growth and elevate living standards. How it relates to the course - Permanent factory closures and job losses that occurred in the early 90s have been partly linked to free trade. Strong economic growth and job creation offset that. Free trade agreement accelerated the industrial restructuring, allowing communities negatively affected less time to respond. National Occupational Classification (NOC): identifies two dimensions of skill, providing information on skill level and generic skill type for each of the detailed occupations in the Canadian labour market. There are 4 skill levels depending on education/training required, and 9 skill types depending on task performed. Neo-liberal/Neo-liberalism: market-driven approach to economic and social policy based on neoclassical theories of economics. It is the economic beliefs that free market forces, achieved by minimizing government restrictions on businesses (privatization and deregulation) provide the only route to economic growth. Global reach of the market is the solution to all poverty and development issues How it relates to the course - Neo-liberalism believes in cutting public expenditure for social services like education and health care, reducing the safety-net for the poor and even maintenance of roads, bridges, water supplies, etc. It also eliminates the concept of “the public good” or “community” and replaces it with “individual responsibility”. This pressures the poor societies for their lack of health care, education, and social security all by themselves – then blaming them if they fail. Non-Standard Work: an alternative to the standard type of employment. 4 Part-time work is the most common type, but number of multiple-job holders has been increasing. The own-account self-employed category has also been growing. Temporary work has also become more widespread How it relates to the course - Much of nonstandard employment can have intense working conditions which are associated with higher rates of stress and injury, excessive hours of work which increase psychological and physiological problems, and job insecurity which may have negative effects on personal relationships, parenting effectiveness. People are also replaced for part-time employees for the companies to save money. Pay Equity: pay equity, or comparable worth as it is called in the US, focuses specifically on the most glaring indicator of gender inequality in the labour market: the wage gap. Pay equity is a proactive policy, requiring employers to assess the extent of pay discrimination and then to adjust wages so that women are fairly compensated. How it relates to the course - Recognizes that occupational gender segregation underlies the wage gap. Focuses on equal pay for equal value. Precarious work/jobs/employment: low pay, part-time or highly variable hours, no benefits or pensions. How it relates to the course - It focuses on lower labour costs through labour practices. Example – just-in- time management assumes workers are disposable and renewable. Has erratic schedules and assumes workers are always available with little notice. Assumes that since people are young, they have no other obligations. Incomes are low and variable. Causes stress and ill health. Primary Industry: the primary sector of the economy involves changing natural resources into primary products. Most products from this sector are considered raw materials for other industries. Major businesses in this sector include mining, agriculture, forestry, fishing, etc. How it relates to the course - Staples = raw materials. Canadian economic development has depended on developing a succession of staple products. This left us very dependent on foreign investment and foreign markets, leaving Canada vulnerable. Canada was caught in a staples trap without “high value” jobs. Racialization/Racialized Canadians: racialization is the process of classifying people to distinguish themselves from “others”. Race is considered a socially constructed category based on the “natural” characteristics of groups or people. Racial categories change over time due to social, economic, cultural and psychological practices. How it relates to the course - 80% of immigrants are visible minorities and 1/3 of visible minorities were 5 born in Canada. Those who are racialized do not get the same opportunity as everyone else. This results in many people not having work or being forced into precarious work. Either way, they may struggle to survive and feel belongingness in society. Racialization of precarious work: competition, favouritism, silencing (job ghettos), hegemony. Secondary Industry: industry that converts the raw materials provided by primary industry into commodities and products for the consumer. How it relates to the course - In 2008, most of the primary and secondary sectors declined while service sector jobs doubled. There was an expansion in the secondary sectors but there was less need for employees due to technology. Those employed in primary/secondary industries would be classified as blue-collar workers (those who do dirty work). A small secondary sector means we don’t have a lot of people making a lot of money in manufacturing. Service Sector: Service sector has an upper tier (distributive services, business services, education health and welfare, and public administration. The Lower tier has retail and other consumer services. How it relates to the course - Rise of the service sector jobs could be due to: new technologies and organizational forms in manufacturing, declining number of farms, and role of the state as provider of education, social services and funder of health. Pink Collar workers work in the lower tier service sector (retail, fast food). Unaware of there will be good jobs in service sector in future because businesses calling for spending cuts. Systemic Discrimination: discrimination through policies and practices which have been historically entrenched in systems, resulting in barriers to equality of opportunity for members of minority groups. Example: “I will not interview you because you are black”, “I welcome you to Canada, but I’m sorry your qualifications as an accountant are not recognized here” Unemployment Rate: the number of people actively looking for a job as a percentage of the labour force. Divide the # of people out of work and seeking work by the total number of labour force participants. Excludes discouraged workers and those outside the labour force (e.g. students) Unemployment: three types of unemployment: cyclical (up and down cycles of the economy), frictional (transition of jobs) and structural (outsourcing for cheaper labour, downsizing, government switch of priorities to neoliberalism, free trade agreements, technology upgrades). How it relates to the course - Often leads to material and social deprivation, psychological stress, and the adoption of health-threatening coping behaviours. It may cause mental and physical problems – including depression, anxiety, and increased suicide rate 6 Universal Declaration of Human Rights: a declaration signed and ratified by most of the world’s countries, becoming the first time in history that human rights and fundamental freedoms were described as universal values and described in detail. These 30 rights are those you have simply because you are human. Canadian drafted the universal declaration of human rights. Problem is that declaration does not have power over law – it is optional, so people do not have to follow it and the UN does not have power on its own to punish. Good or Bad Jobs Good jobs – Primary labour market (good benefits, high pay, security, good working conditions, potential for advancement, autonomy, good relationships and work life balance Bad jobs - alienating, authoritarian, and unsafe. Little control over how to meet these demands. Health problems. - Example: secondary labour market or precarious work (maids, waiters, cashiers, retail) Precarious work /jobs/employment – a form of employment usually characterized by temporary, part-time, contract based, or indirect work, substandard working conditions, including low pay, no benefits, no access to holidays. (maid, Wal-Mart, waitress) - Similar to nonstandard work Non-standard work – part-time, temporary, contract - AKA contingent work Working poor – lack of education or marketable skills, simply cannot find well paid and secure employment. Become a larger group in the Canadian labour market. Younger households particularly those headed by female single parents particularly disadvantaged. Declining middle class. Inequality – a measure of the disparity between rich and poor – a measure of fairness Flexible labour markets / flexibility – Labour market – people who are looking for work or working. Solution to overworking and unemployment. a) Flexible employment patterns – flexibility of availability b) Ease and cost of hiring and firing workers 7 c) Switch to shorter-term employment contracts – part-time, on- call d) Greater flexibility in pay arrangements e) Increased Locational flexibility National Occupational Classification system – identifies two dimensions of skill, providing information on skill level and generic skill type for each of the 25,000 detailed occupations in the Canadian labour market 1) Level A (upper tier services) – professionals, university degree (accountants, computer programmers, doctor) 2) Level B (Supervisors, paralegals, real estate, insurance) 3) Level C (clerical, office equipment operator, retail sales clerk, taxi drivers) 4) Level D (lower tier services and goods production)– no formal education and some on-the-job training (cashier, security job, general labourers) Systematic Discrimination Patriarchy – male domination over women but more specifically it describes forms of family organization in which fathers and husbands hold the power - Women’s inequality is the result of capitalism and patriarchy - Stereotypical beliefs - Created double day of paid and unpaid work Sex vs. gender – sex: biological distinction between men and women. Gender: socially constructed in the sense that it refers to how a particular society defines masculine and feminine roles Gender wage gap – Males earn more than females. Women’s wages are rising, while men’s wages are staying the same - More women have higher-education and are able to obtain higher- paying jobs - Women still have less labour force experience and tend to choose lower-paying jobs 8 - Wage discrimination Inequality Working poor – lack of education or marketable skills, simply cannot find well paid and secure employment. Become a larger group in the Canadian labour market. Younger households particularly those headed by female single parents particularly disadvantaged. Declining middle class. Unprotected Workers – workers that lack benefits, unions, job security, etc Job ghetto – low paying jobs are common and labour turnover is high making union organizing more difficult Pay equity – inequality in pay between men and women (women get paid less due to lower education or less availability), and visible minorities, disabled, aboriginals. Employment equity – Maintaining an equal opportunity and workplace for all individuals regardless of race, sex, or age. (occurs to: Women, Aboriginal, Immigrants/Visible minorities, Disabled) Universal Declaration of Human Rights – A United Nations document that lays down the basic principles of human rights that should be adhered to. Equity seeking groups – individuals who are fighting for equality for themselves or others (reduce labour-market inequality) Living Wage vs. Minimum Wage vs. Real Personal Income vs. Values Employment – A person who is taking part in an activity in order to receive some form payment/income in return Living wage - is the minimum hourly income necessary for a worker to meet basic needs Minimum wage – Lowest wage permitted by law/government Real personal income – the total of all income from wages, investments, small businesses, and government transfers-before taxes and after adjustments for inflation - Real personal incomes in Canada rose only half as much as GDP from 1993 to 2002 Values – what people treasure and believe in, in life 9 Race and Discrimination Race – A social constructive category based on the supposed natural characteristics of a group of people for the purpose of establishing social hierarchies Racism – the ideology and practice of interiorizing groups of people who are racialized - Involves making those groups who were racialized feel inferior Racialization / Racialized Canadians – the process of classification, representation, and signification used by various groups to distinguish themselves from others - Certain preconceived ideas about people’s physical and social attributes (stereotyping - sets the stage for racism) Discrimination - The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, esp. on the grounds of race, age, or sex. (Usually occurs to: Women, Aboriginal, Immigrants/Visible minorities, Disabled) Systemic discrimination – hidden beneath the everyday practices within a workplace bureaucracy. Refers to the fact that well qualified visible minorities will be discriminated against for either hiring or promotion. Equity seeking groups – individuals who are fighting for equality for themselves or others (reduce labour-market inequality) Double day / second shift – In relation to women’s work and patriarchy. Most married women spend their days in paying jobs yet assume most responsibilities of childcare and domestic chores when they go home. Times and Theories Neo-liberal / Neo-liberalism – Free markets and individualism. Liberalized free trade + deregulation + privatization + reducing social programs (reduce costs and tighten eligibility) + remove labour rights (freeze min. Wage, back towards legislation). - Liberalism + capitalism (for capitalism) - Rich grow richer and poor get poorer - Is globalization (the global integration of national economies achieved through increased mobility of goods, services, labour, and investment 10 across national boundaries) - Free Market: An economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses 3 Themes: 1) Free markets 2) Fiscal prudence 3) Corporate efficiency Capitalism / Capitalist society – An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit. (high profits, continuing control) (came after Feudalism) Globalization - the global integration of national economies achieved through increased mobility of goods, services, labour, and investment across national boundaries - Rise of creative class - Brings plant shut downs, jobs lost to downsizing, corporate reorganization, mergers, and outsourcing - Globalization may have an impact on labour practices through the public’s growing concern about the labour practices of nationally based firms operating in developing countries Keynesianism - John Maynard Keynes suggested that governments stimulate demand using: 1) Fiscal Policy: cut taxes and government funding 2) Monetary Policy: lowering interest rates in hard times and increasing interest rates in good times and altering money supply Austerity - a policy of deficit-cutting, lower spending, and a reduction in the amount of benefits and public services provided. Austerity policies are often used by governments to reduce their deficit spendingwhile sometimes coupled with increases in taxes to pay back creditors to reduce debt - Caused a recession Canadian Council of Chief Executives – 150 of the top CEO’s from transnational corporation. 11 - Goals: Make government serve the needs of business and to work in partnership with the state as a junior partner. - Agenda: free enterprise, less government, less taxes, fewer regulations, inflation, low costs, and more opportunities for business. - Free Enterprise: An economic system in which private business operates in competition and largely free of state control Cyclical Changes – Events that reoccur over and over. Business cycle. Inflation vs. Recession. Structural changes (referring to unemployment causes due to changes in the structure in the business operation or policy) – outsourcing for cheaper labour and fewer regulations. Similar economic periods, minus on account of new technologies, new trading arrangements, and new government policies. (Cyclical, frictional...) - Automation/ tech change - Downsizing/switch temporary agencies - Government switches priorities/ neoliberalism - Free trade agreements Fordism / Fordist Compromise - : production characterized by mass production, protected market, and standardized work structures (efficiency) **Division of labour – see page 21** - Great depression (1930’s) took place because supply>demand - John Maynard Keynes suggested that governments stimulate demand using: 1) Fiscal Policy: cut taxes and government funding 2) Monetary Policy: lowering interest rates in hard times and increasing interest rates in good times - Fordist Compromise: creating new institutions without threat of radical change (welfare state) Gross Domestic Product –Sum total of all income in a country - sum total of all output (economic value of goods and services in a country) Supply-side economics – Also known as monetarism. Shift from Keynesian emphasis on stimulating demand for goods and services to neo-liberal “supply side.” Policies that stimulate the economy (the supply of goods and 12 services) by lowering taxes and restricting the money supply. Stimulus spending - Government spending directed at raising the overall state of a sluggish economy by increasing output and demand, and lowering unemployment Unemployment Unemployment – often leads to material and social deprivation, psychological stress, and the adoption of health threatening coping behaviors. - Unemployment rate applies for people that are 15 or older, that want to work for pay, and looking for a job within the last 4 weeks - Includes workers, people fired, and active work pursuers and it excludes home workers, people under 15, volunteers, rich people not able to work, domestic work, senior work, and aboriginal people, hidden economy, limits people leaving the country. Une
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