1. Explain the growth of the service sector in Canada and the
implications for Canadian workers.
-By 1951, 47% of all employed Canadians were working in the service industries.
-By 2008, 76.5% of all employed Canadians were in service-sector jobs.
-The service sector has almost doubled from then to now, unlike the jobs in the
primary sector such as agriculture, which was been reduced to 1.9% of all
employment in Canada.
-We now live in a service dominated economy.
-Due to the advancement of technology, many people in the primary and secondary
sector have lost jobs. Fewer people operating machines and equipment could
produce much more.
-The role of the state as a provider of educational and social services and a funder of
health services contributed significantly to the growth of the service sector.
-Governments at all levels and public services, particularly education and health
care, have increased in their hiring this decade. (Partly to replace the growing
number of retiring baby boomers)
2. What concerns do you think motivated the Occupy Toronto
movement? Why do they refer to the 99%? How do you think they might
best achieve their goals over time?
-Occupy Toronto, is part of the “Occupy movement” which started and developed in
Wall Street, New York. The Occupy movement is an international protest movement
which is primarily directed against economic and social inequality.
-The phrase “We are the 99%” was developed as a slogan for the Occupy movement.
It refers to the vast concentration of wealth among the top 1% of income earners
compared to the other 99 percent.
- What motivated this movement is the obvious inequality that people of this generation
are faced with right now.
-Many of the protestors are college graduates who can’t get a job, and are in debt in
-Some forms of protest include:
-Protesters want more and better jobs, more equal distribution of income, bank reform,
and a reduction of the influence of corporations on politics.
3. We are hearing a lot of complaints about capitalism and neo-
liberalism these days. What do these terms mean, and what are people
-Neoliberalism is a worldview or philosophy. Its principle economic standpoint is the
freedom of market (freedom for capital, goods, and services to move where it is most
profitable resulting in the “trickle down” notion of wealth distribution. It also calls for
the elimination of trade unions in the labour force and the removal of any
impediments to capital mobility, such as regulations passed by democratic
-Neoliberalists believe that public expenditure by the government for social services
should be reduced as much as possible.
-Governments should mainly function to provide the infrastructure to advance the
rule of law with respect to property rights and contracts.
-Neoliberalism requires citizens to abandon attitudes about thepublic and community
good and substitute the centrality of individualism, especially entrepreneurial
capitalism and individual responsibility. Neoliberalism is imposed by crisis and by force.
-It is in no way linked to democracy or freedom.
4. What forces have either pushed or pulled women out of the home
and into paid employment in recent decades? Describe the impact on
women and how we can help them cope.
The barriers have been eroding because of:
1) Feminists stress women’s capabilities – demand equality
2) There are more opportunities for education and work – growth of service sector,
3) Women’s work is needed to maintain living standards - to support the family, or
live on their own!
-In the 1960s, the postwar baby-boom gen was completing education and flooding
into an expanding job market by the late 60’s.
-Young women were becoming much better educated which raised their occupational
aspirations and made them more competitive.
-The expansion of white collar service sector (Of or relating to the work done or those
who work in an office or other professional environment.) boosted the demand for
female labour, and the growth of feminism contributed to more liberal social values
regarding women’s work roles.
-A rising separation and divorce rate forced women to find their own source of
income-As women have entered paid employment, their work patterns have not
come to mirror those of men. Because women are heavily concentrated in the
secondary labour market and often have to juggle family responsibilities with a job,
their lives have become increasingly individualized.
5. How do you explain the wage gap between men and women? What
are employment equity and pay equity designed to achieve? Describe
how each policy works. You are encouraged to illustrate your answer
with reference to North Country.
-Women who work full-time for the entire year earn 71.4% of what similarly employed
men earned in 2007.
-The gap was narrowing until 1995, but stopped...
-Some women are getting high-paying jobs -- but many women have low-wage, low-
-Employment disparities are growing among women -- and between the sexes.
-Why is there a gender gap?
1. Wage discrimination (less of an influence)
2. Occupational segmentation > job ghettos
-Even as women have entered the higher-paying, managerial and professional jobs,
the wage gap narrowed by just 9% over a decade.
1. Sternness or severity of manner or attitude.
2. Extreme plainness and simplicity of style or appearance.
Jobs that typically have low salaries, limited or no career advancement opportunities,
and few, if any, benefits
Canadian Council of Chief Executives:
The Canadian Council of Chief Executives (CCCE) is a not-for-profit, non-partisan
organization composed of the CEOs of Canada's leading enterprises. We engage in an
active program of public policy research, consultation and advocacy. The CCCE is a
source of thoughtful, informed comment from a business point of view on issues of
national importance to the economic and social fabric of Canada.
Capitalism / Capitalist society: An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are
controlled by private owners for profit.
Orderly fashion in which events constantly repeat.
The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, esp. on
the grounds of race, age, or sex.
Double day / second shift:
The "shift" of work handled by women(men) at home, consisting of housework and
1. The condition of having paid work.
2. A person's trade or profession.
Affirmative action refers to policies that take factors including "race, color, religion,
sex or national origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented
group, usually as a means to counter the effects of a history of discrimination.
Equity seeking groups:
“target groups” designated under the federal Employment Equity Act as likely to
experience discrimination in employment: Women, Visible minorities, Aboriginal
people, Persons with disabilities…
Flexible labour markets/flexibility:
Firms' ability to make changes to their workforce in terms of the number of
employees they hire and the number of hours worked by the employees. Labor
market flexibility also includes areas such as wages and unions. A flexible labor
market is one where firms are under fewer regulations regarding the labor force and
can therefore set wages (i.e. no minimum wage), fire employees at will and change
their work hours. A labor market with low flexibility is bound by rules and regulations
such as minimum wage restrictions and requirements from trade unions.
Fordism / Fordist compromise:
named after Henry Ford, is a modern economic and social system based on industrial