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sosc1910 - mid-term review

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1910
Nadiah Habib

SOSC 1910 Mid-term Review Part I Define the following terms and concepts. Briefly describe its significance in the context of the course. 1. Dominant Ideology - a set of interrelated beliefs that tell us how the world works and how it ought to work (descriptive and prescriptive). Reinscribes and reinforces the status quo and resist change. Significance: ? 2. GDP/GNP GNP – the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country in one year. GDP – is simply an output measure, the total final output of goods and services produced by an economy. Significance: GNP and GDP are the most commonly accepted methods of assessment the relative value of each national economy. However, they tell us nothing about income distribution and local purchasing power of the people in the given place. Therefore, these measures fail to give a full identification of the incidence of poverty. 3. Third World The term “Third World” came out of the non-alignment movement. 1955 – meeting in Indonesia, Nasser (Egypt), Tito (Yugoslavia), Nehru (India) made an alliance called “Third World”. The former colonies and developing countries could support each other as a block against the agenda of the more powerful nations. Initially “Third World” was a term of resistance, meaning that those countries wanted to develop in their own “third” way (neither capitalistic way as in the First World, nor socialistic way as in the Second World). With the moderate success the alliance performed until 1970s, and after that the term “Third World” came to be known as the third best, the countries that lack economic development. 4. The Development of Underdevelopment is what G. Frank called the situation of developing countries being negatively affected by their ongoing relationship with the developed West. In our course the concept of “development of underdevelopment” represents Frank’s Dependency Theory where he argues that the third world countries have historically been in the position of producing for the colonial and later “metropolitan” centers of the industrialized world. It is clearly stated in the article “Theories of Underdevelopment” by Andrew Webster that according to Frank the growth of the advanced industrial centres in the world today meant the simultaneous underdevelopment of those countries (third world countries) whose economic surplus the West exploited. 5. IMF/ World Bank are two global financial institutions that were initially created in order to help Europe rebuilt itself after WWII. IMF grants short-term loans for the financing of balance of payments deficits. The World Bank offers long-term loans for the financing of specific programs and projects. After Europe rebuilt itself, IMF & World Bank turned their attention to helping with the development of the “Third World”. Significance: While IMF & World Bank claim that they are helping Third World countries to develop, we can see by taking a closer look at the Third World countries that it is not exactly true. In the movie “Money Lenders” we see the living conditions of people in the Third World countries and from what those people say in their interviews it doesn’t look like they have ever been helped by anybody. Also in the article “The World Bank and Poverty” the author comes to conclusion that the WB demonstrated little interest in the actual condition of the very poor and needy. • The origins of poverty remained undiscussed, • There was no attempt to define basic human needs and to measure what was necessary to satisfy them. 6. “There is nothing objective about objectivity” There is nothing objective about objectivity, both the notion of objectivity and the notion of the dominant ideology go hand in hand. When something appears objective, it has a hidden bias in it. Significance: For example if we will take a look at the situation where some Third World countries reject paying their debts to IMF and the World Bank, it seems quite objective to think that people in the Third World countries are irresponsible. However, there is nothing objective about objectivity, and when we start looking at the reasons why those countries are rejecting their debts and calling them illegitimate (increasing the interest rate from 6-8% to 22% against the terms of the initial contract, demands on adding the insurance premiums, and overvaluation of US currency and devaluation of Third World currencies as the result of change in the universal currency standard from gold to the US dollar), we can see that the Third World countries are just trying to gain some fairness. 7. Metropolitan/ Satellite Metropolitan – 1 world, head office, city/urban centres (where companies are originated and expand from there creatinrdsatellites Satellite – 3 world, regional offices, country/ rural centres (profits made by Satellites transferred to metropolitan where the head offices are. Significance: The Metropolitan/ Satellite relationships model was used by A.G. Frank to demonstrate that there is a ‘chain of dependency’ running down from the highly advanced countries of the world. Frank argued that there is a chain of metropolises and satellites that runs from the world metropolis down to the rural merchants who are satellites of the local commercial metropolitan centre but who in their turn have peasants as their satellites. According to Frank the Third World countries while being dependent, can only possibly expand if the dominant metropolis expands. But such expansion is always under control of the metropolis since any expanded surplus is automatically passed upwards out of the satellite. According to the dependency theorists the only way to stop this exploitation and break the chain of dependency is socialist revolution by the Third World working class which will remove the comprador elite, the weakest link in the chain. 8. The triangle of trade 1) British ships leave for Africa loaded with weapons, clothes, ect. 2) In Africa they exchange goods for slaves 3) In Caribbean Islands they exchange slaves for Caribbean produce (especially cotton and sugar) and return for England. Europeans were taking this route over and over again and making profits at every stage of the triangular trade. Significance: • The triangular trade had a serious impact on the growth of the African population. • The European traders had a particularly harmful affect on the existing political and economic patterns of African Society (conflict between dominant elite and the subordinate groups) • It made African, Caribbean and other countries highly dependent on the export of their resources (crops and labour) in exchange for the import of manufactured goods from capitalist societies. This showed how Africa was supporting the development of European market instead of our traditional view of the Europeans helping Africa to develop. 9. Outward vs Inward model of development After experiencing colonization and the pressure of the metropolitan centres, development in the Third World was geared outward to meet the needs and demands of the industrialized centres rather than devise and implement development to meet these countries internal needs and goals. Some proposed that Third World countries needed to concentrate on an inward model of development. This means they would begin to manufacture their own goods and develop skills and markets based on their manufacturing endeavours. Significance: The idea of ‘Outward vs Inward model of development’ came out of the dependency school of development. They dismissed the notions of modernization theory that a lack of development could be attributed to a deficiency of modernizing values and that exposure to advanced industrialized countries could only be of positive benefit to the Third World. Instead they argued that third world countries have historically been in the position of producing for the industrialized countries. 10. Export-led economy – describes economies that are structured around meeting the needs of industrialized countries. These economies are driven by the exports of raw materials and foodstuffs with very little manufactured goods being produced or exported. Significance: This is one of the many dilemmas faced by third world economies. Their ability to trade these commodities for needed manufactured goods depends on the capital they can get for these commodities. Economies that are dependent on an export-led economy encounter problems when they find themselves producing an increasing amount of raw materials and foodstuff to buy smaller and smaller amounts of manufactured goods needed from abroad. Since, commodity prices keep decreasing and the prises of manufactured goods keeps increasing, G. Frank has called this cycle produced as a result of these export led economies as “The Development of Underdevelopment” 11. Human Centered Development 12. Difficult Knowledge is knowledge that often challenges the dominant ideology that is either difficult for us to accept, so we reject it and its source (because it deeply challenges some of our long held beliefs) or we accept it without subjecting that knowledge to a critical evaluation. When you are in the grips of difficult knowledge it is important to ask yourselves: what is it about this information that is causing me to reject it so vehemently/ or what is it about this information that I find so seductive? Significance: we can apply the concept of difficult knowledge when we learn about the reasons for rd unequal development of the 1st world anst3 world countries. As a dominant ideolord, it is easily accepted by people who live in the 1 world countries that the reason why 3 world countries are underdeveloped is laziness and helplessness of the population in thos
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