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SOSC 1910 (3)
Final

sosc1910 - final exam review

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Department
Social Science
Course
SOSC 1910
Professor
Nadiah Habib
Semester
Fall

Description
Review Answers for Final exam sosc 1910 The state becomes irrelevant when it is exploitative, coercive, and has no creditability and legitimacy to lead the people. Given such a corrupt nature of the state, people turn to ethnic, religious, and philanthropic organizations for hope, leadership, self expression and support. In our course, the term irrelevant state is applied to the Third World countries and particularly to Africa in the article Ethnicity, nationhood and the state in Africa. In African countries following the Structural Adjustment Programs and Conditionalities of Aid the state has come to play a major role in the political economy of African social formations. But instead of playing a positive and leading role, the state has become a tool in hands of a largely decadent, unproductive and corrupt dominant class. Thus in a search for a sense of community and belonging, the people turn to ethnic, religious, and social organizations. As a result the only way the state can influence people is by political domination, which relies on force, violence, and coercion. However, this type of state dominance is relatively unstable. In the context of the course, the term irrelevant state gives us a better idea of the reasons for political instability in the Third World countries. Also the term helps to explain the Global Conflicts that arise between different ethnic groups. Civil Society a vast ensemble of constantly changing groups and individuals whose only common ground is that they are outside the state and who have acquired some consciousness of their marginality and opposition to the state. Civil Society is one of the ways the state can dominate its people. As opposed to political domination, the advocating of civil society by the state implies non-violent methods that rely on moral, intellectual, spiritual, and emotional manipulation and leadership. The prevalent ideas are diffused throughout the society by the state, its agents and agencies. In the context of our course the term civil society is something the needs to be present in the Third World countries in order for a true democracy to take place. Currently in the Third World countries people dont have an ability to see what the government is doing, they cant have a consultation with a civil society. Ethnic Essentialism Imagining that ones ethnicity is natural and primordial and actually produces an inherent essential connection between people and as a result can produce ideas of them versus us mentality. In the third World there is much reliance on political domination, but political domination goes against the development of civil society and alienates people from the state. The more ideas of ethnic essentialism flourish the more violence there is. Often these ideas have been encouraged by the colonial presence which used antagonisms between different groups within the state to maintain colonial control, after decolonization however, these now deeply rooted ideas and animosities are still in place often with disastrous consequences. 1. Why do ethnicity and regionalism sometimes contribute to Political Instability in the Third World? Because of the lack of democratization and the irrelevance of the state, people turn to ethnic, religious and social organization in order to be able to express their opinion and find support. Since in the Third World there is an increased reliance on the political domination, people become more and more alienated from the state. While being based on force, violence and coercion, political domination is recognized as an unstable way for the state to dominate people. While being deeply influence by their ethnic and regional communities people not just ignore the ideas of the state, but very often become its opponents. 2. What does it mean to say that the state is irrelevant? What renders its irrelevance? State is irrelevant when instead of playing a positive and leading role, the state becomes a tool in hands of a largely decadent, unproductive and corrupt dominant class. Thus in a search for a sense of community and belonging, the people turn to ethnic, religious, and social organizations, which render the states irrelevance.3. In what ways does the state work to dominate its population? Which of these ways are most effective and why? The state can dominate people in two ways: 1) political domination, 2) civil society The political domination happens when the state relies on force, violence, coercion and other extra-legal methods to retain control or dominance over society. In this case, the state creates, services, and relies heavily on a well armed military machine. In civil society the state doesnt rely on violence, rather it relies on moral, intellectual, and spiritual manipulation and leadership. The prevalent ideas are diffused throughout the society by the state, its agents and agencies. In my opinion the civil society is the most effective way to dominate people. First of all, in civil society people are willingly cooperating with government, which means that population is responsive to the states ideas. In the political domination, the state usually becomes irrelevant, and people are forced to subordinate to the government, which means that people dont value and support the states ideas. Overall, civil society while being based on ideological domination is more permanent, rather than political domination that tends to be unstable. 4. How have the features of Global conflict changed? The features of conflicts of conflicts have changed: o More intra-national conflicts (conflict within nations) o More interethnic strife (within the same ethnic community) o 90% of casualties were once soldiers, now 90% of casualties are civilians
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