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15 March - UNIT 3 - Multiculturalism.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 3375
Tanja Juric

Mar 18, 2013 UNIT3:W ILL K YMLICKA S M ULTICULTURAL O DYSSEYS  I. Minority Rights  II. Liberal Multiculturalism  Kymlica describes liberal multiculturalism as a process of Citizenization – where individuals use human rights language to filter and frame their identities and ethnocutural rights   This week introduces us to the origins of liberal multiculturalism: o Learn how liberal multiculturalism, and its focus on minority rights represents a new stage in the working out of the logic of human rights o Recognize how human rights legislation functions as both a constraint and aid for the development of ethnocutural rights o See how multicultural policies in Canada are currently viewed as a result of increased recognition and presence of ethnocutural ’minorities’  This week’s focus: the origins of liberal multiculturalism, and how it is connected (or has evolved from) human rights polices and ideals.  Continue by seeing: how human rights legislation functions as both a constraint and an aid in the development of ethnocutural rights in a diverse or globalized social context  Relationship between liberal multiculturalism and human rights  Focus on minority rights, recognition and representation, gives way to a new stage in the working out of the logic of Human Rights principles  (i.e., preserving the rights and dignity of all human beings, regardless of religious background, race etc. by ensuring that their racial, ethnic, religious background is protected and respected “The Origins of Liberal Multiculturalism” o Kymlica argues that human rights ideals inspire and justify multiculturalism  Influences how these claims are recognized and framed o Assumption that human rights replaced minority rights  But HR revolution unleashed ideas about ethnic and racial equality  Liberal multiculturalism  New stage in gradual working out in a substantive way of the logic of HR  (i.e., inherent equality of human beings) – the recognition of the original position that Rawls talks about – formal equality. Liberal multiculturalism is seen as substantiating the claims of formal equality  Sequence of events re: ethnic and racial hierarchies o Decolonization  link between equality and decolonization made explicit in UN’s 1960 Gen. Ass. o Racial Desegregation  initiated by civil rights struggle in US (i.e., civil rights liberalism) o Differentiated minority rights  local adaptation of civil rights liberalism  What matters most is not change in law, as much as the change in people’s consciousness (i.e., demand equality as a right, entitled to equality now!)  Human rights revolution as a constraint 1  Creates a space for ethnocutural groups to contest internal segregation and inherited hierarchies  But also requires groups to advance claims in specific language (of HR)  Ensures multicultural policies and institutions cannot be captured/misused for liberal purposes – to make sure that the communities themselves aren’t hiding behind the claims of diversity  AND that dominant groups do not feel threatened by demands of minority groups  Liberal multiculturalism = as a process of Citizenization – the intention is not to assimilate o Key is not to suppress deferential claims (see slides)  Liberal multiculturalism poses challenges to ‘traditional’ ways of life o Challenges notion of ‘timeless’ or ‘authentic’ practices; sees them as a result of hybridism o No neutral/objective way of determining which practices are ‘authentic’  Backlash to multiculturalism is largely restricted to immigration o Largely this is due to the Muslim immigration into western Europe  Kymlicka assumes we are already convinced of the value of liberal multiculturalism  Can Kymlicka safely make this assumption?  Do all Canadians agree that multiculturalism is a valuable and relevant approach for a diverse, globalised society? III. Ethnic Minority Rights  Lecture objectives:  Recognize the different circumstances involved in ‘Western” vs. Postcommunist Europe, and how this might explain why substate nationalism may have been a viable option to provide stability, security and recognition to ethnic minorities in postcommunist nations. o Substate nationalism: State that exists within a state (i.e., Quebec) – a distinct society, language laws etc. that don’t extend to all of Canada but just that particular substate national identity  See why/how some see multiculturalism as having failed Europe, but succeeded in other nations, such as Canada. o Kymlika makes the argument that you can’t impose one model on another nation (i.e., the multiculturalism model) – each nation must come to their own version of multiculturalism  Ugliness of globalization – this idea that everyone should be doing things our way  “The European Experiment” examines problems with attempting to internationalize the treatment of national minorities in postcommunist Europe  Focuses on strategies European organizations offered, and why they failed  Substate nationalism failed because circumstances in postcommunist Europe were different than they were in Western European nations  Postcommunist nations need to be able to articulate and adopt a principled argument concerning minority rights (instead of the current ‘piece-meal response’ that risks generating cynicism about the entire minority rights project).  European Experiment  European story begins with the collapse of communism in Central Eastern Europe in 1989 o Accompanied by a number of violent ethnic conflicts o Fear that ethnic tensions would spiral out of control  EU showed very little interest in minority rights prior to 1989 o Even propped up gov’t known to be oppressive to minorities 2  Why did Western democracies suddenly become a champion of minorities in post-communist Europe 1. A mixture of humanitarian, self-interest & ideological reasons 2. Humanitarian concern: to stop suffering of minorities 3. Self-interest: belief ethnic violence would escalate/generate refugee movement to West 4. Civil wars (get 2 other points from slides)  European organizations decided to help in three ways: o Publicizing best practices o Formulating minimum standards o Case-specific interventions The argument is that there is a difficulty integrating optimistic pursuit of liberal multiculturalism w/fears of destabilizing ethnic conflict  Main concern was to address homeland minorities o Non-immigrant groups that had been historically settled within a region and viewed tat region/country as their historic “homeland”  And substate national minorities  Get notes from slides  Substate nationalism failed in Postcommunist nations because the circumstances were different than in other (Western) nations o The “West” was a democratic consolidation: provided/ensured safety of minorities o The safety was not present in postcommunist nations; only option was to lie low
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