Defined- technique for gathering and analyzing the content of text- Content includes
words, meanings, pictures, symbols, ideas, themes or any message that can be
The hidden meaning of a dream, fantasy, or thought that can be revealed through
interpretation of its images or through free association in psychoanalysis.
According to psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, the manifest content of a dream includes the
actual images, thoughts and content contained within the dream. The manifest content is
the elements of the dream that we remember upon awakening.
the act, process, or technique of selecting a suitable sample; specifically : the act,
process, or technique of selecting a representative part of a population for the purpose of
determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population
Measurement is the process observing and recording the observations that are collected as
part of a research effort.
Issues with validity
No experiment can be perfectly controlled, and no measuring instrument can be perfectly
calibrated. All measurement, therefore, is to some degree suspect. When the measurement
is nonqualitative, this reservation may amount to no more than the acknowledgment that
“accuracy” is limited. 6 More generally, however, the issue of validity is a fundamental
problem of theory.
Issues with reliability
Comparison of findings is a basic process of scientific, as well as everyday life. Knowing
what conclusions to draw when findings differ across studies (or even when they agree)
depends upon evaluations of the validity (see Chapter 3) and reliability of observations.
Observations entail the recording of the reaction of some entity to some stimulus, even if
the only stimulus is the act of measurement. Reliability depends essentially on explicitly
described observational procedures. It is useful to distinguish several kinds of reliability.
General Social Survey
The General Social Survey (GSS) is a sociological survey used to collect data on
demographic characteristics and attitudes of residents of the United States. The survey is
conducted facetoface with an inperson interview by the National Opinion Research
Center at the University of Chicago, of adults (18+) in randomly selected households.
The survey was conducted every year from 1972 to 1994 (except in 1979, 1981, and
1992). Since 1994, it has been conducted every other year. Validity
Validity is described as the degree to which a research study measures what it
intends to measure. There are two main types of validity, internal and external.
Internal validity refers to the validity of the measurement and test itself, whereas
external validity refers to the ability to generalise the findings to the target
population. Both are very important in analysing the appropriateness,
meaningfulness and usefulness of a research study. However, here I will focus
on the validity of the measurement technique (i.e. internal validity).
Another way of looking at this is as maximizing the inherent repeatability or
consistency in an experiment. For maintaining reliability internally, a researcher
will use as many repeat sample groups as possible, to reduce the chance of an
abnormal sample group skewing the results.
Experimental research and ethics
Ethics are the principles and guidelines that help us to uphold the things we
value. In educational research, the American Educational Research Association
has developed a set of ethical guidelines that must be followed. You can view
these guidelines at this
Classical experiment model
Participants ---- manipulation (experiment) observations
Participants---- -------- observations
Solomon four group deisgn
Random selection—pre test—manipulation ---post test
Random selection—manipulation--- post test
Pre test post test
Pre experimental design qusai experimental design
when you measure the dependent variable before the manipulation
measure after the treatment is given
Internal Validity internal validity is a property of scientific studies which reflects the extent to
which a causal conclusion based on a study is warranted. Such warrant is
constituted by the extent to which a study minimizes systematic error (or 'bias').
is the validity of generalized (causal) inferences in scientific studies, usually
based on experiments as experimentalvalidity. In other words, it is the extent to
which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other
people. For example, inferences based on comparative psychotherapy studies
often employ specific samples (e.g. volunteers, highly depressed, no comorbidity
Change happens due to time process not manipulation
-happens in longitudinal studies
when an outside event happens and it effcts your outside variable
outside events is les of an issue if its both groups
-e.g rainy day affects depression
participants stop participating because of death or have moved away
If the respondent becomes sensitive to the expected outcome measure,
performance is impacted
Double blind experiment
Researchers themselves may affect the outcome by unintentionally inserting
If the researcher has some pre-conceived outcome notion, then this mind-set
could influence observations
In a double-blind, neither the researcher or subjects know which is the
experimental or control group
Example: roadside sobriety check
Didn=t know which drivers were intoxicated
Effects of training program un-contaminated
The Effect of Enforcement on Merchant Compliance with the Minimum
Legal Drinking Age Law
Evaluation research is used to determine the impact of a social intervention. A social intervention is an action
taken within a social context designed to produce an intended result. Evaluation research
thus analyzes the impact of a particular program on a certain social problem the program
is trying to solve.
Needs assessment studies
Particular studies directed to determine the existence and extent of problems, usually
pertaining to a specific population.
Studies that decide whether the results of a program justify the expense. The cost could
have been financial or nonfinancial.
Studies that provide a steady flow of information about a topic of interest. These studies
are usually conducted over an extended period of time. In some cases, monitoring studies
require incremental interventions, meaning the results may change slightly as monitoring
methods alter and changes within the topic being studied are made. Common monitoring
studies focus on crime rates or epidemic outbreaks.
Problems with evaluation research
Researchers who utilize evaluation research must contend with numerous problems. They
may experience difficulty ensuring subjects’ full cooperation. Additionally, they may
have trouble finding willing participants, as research and participation in it is a priority
Like other forms of social research, evaluation research must take into account ethical
considerations. As mentioned earlier, sometimes evaluation research studies may require
the split of subjects into experimental and control groups. When considering
controversial topics, such as sex education programs, it can be the evaluation research
itself that raises ethical problems. In this case, the following question might be raised: is
it ethically sound to expose only the experimental group to sex education programs?
TYPICAL SURVEY INTERVIEW VS TYPICAL
QUALITATIVE INTERVIEW 1. Clear beginning and end 1. Beginning and end
2. Standard questions, same sequence 2. Order of questions
tailored to for all respondents specific focus
3. Interviewer appears neutral 3. Interviewer more
4. Interview asks, respondent answers 4. Conversational
Interviewer questions more interviewer
5. One respondent 5. With others / in a
6. Business like format – professional 6. Less formal
7. Close ended Questions 7. Open ended
8. Interviewer alone controls pace 8. Interviewer and
9. Social context of interview not very 9. Social context noted –
important for analysis important for
10. Interviewer standardizes 10. Interviewers adjusts to
communication framework participants’ norms and
9 different types of question that may be used in an interview situation.