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York University
SOCI 2030
Fred Diamond

Content analysis Defined- technique for gathering and analyzing the content of text- Content includes words, meanings, pictures, symbols, ideas, themes or any message that can be communicated. Latent Content The hidden meaning of a dream, fantasy, or thought that can be revealed through  interpretation of its images or through free association in psychoanalysis. Manifest Content According to psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, the manifest content of a dream includes the  actual images, thoughts and content contained within the dream. The manifest content is  the elements of the dream that we remember upon awakening. Sampling the act, process, or technique of selecting a suitable sample; specifically :  the act,  process, or technique of selecting a representative part of a population for the purpose of  determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population Meassurment Measurement is the process observing and recording the observations that are collected as  part of a research effort. Issues with validity No experiment can be perfectly controlled, and no measuring instrument can be perfectly  calibrated. All measurement, therefore, is to some degree suspect. When the measurement  is nonqualitative, this reservation may amount to no more than the acknowledgment that  “accuracy” is limited. 6 More generally, however, the issue of validity is a fundamental  problem of theory. Issues with reliability Comparison of findings is a basic process of scientific, as well as everyday life. Knowing  what conclusions to draw when findings differ across studies (or even when they agree)  depends upon evaluations of the validity (see Chapter 3) and reliability of observations.  Observations entail the recording of the reaction of some entity to some stimulus, even if  the only stimulus is the act of measurement. Reliability depends essentially on explicitly  described observational procedures. It is useful to distinguish several kinds of reliability. General Social Survey The General Social Survey (GSS) is a sociological survey used to collect data on  demographic characteristics and attitudes of residents of the United States. The survey is  conducted face­to­face with an in­person interview by the National Opinion Research  Center at the University of Chicago, of adults (18+) in randomly selected households.  The survey was conducted every year from 1972 to 1994 (except in 1979, 1981, and  1992). Since 1994, it has been conducted every other year. Validity Validity is described as the degree to which a research study measures what it intends to measure. There are two main types of validity, internal and external. Internal validity refers to the validity of the measurement and test itself, whereas external validity refers to the ability to generalise the findings to the target population. Both are very important in analysing the appropriateness, meaningfulness and usefulness of a research study. However, here I will focus on the validity of the measurement technique (i.e. internal validity). Reliability Another way of looking at this is as maximizing the inherent repeatability or consistency in an experiment. For maintaining reliability internally, a researcher will use as many repeat sample groups as possible, to reduce the chance of an abnormal sample group skewing the results. Experimental research and ethics Ethics are the principles and guidelines that help us to uphold the things we value. In educational research, the American Educational Research Association has developed a set of ethical guidelines that must be followed. You can view these guidelines at this Classical experiment model Participants ---- manipulation (experiment) observations Participants---- -------- observations Solomon four group deisgn Random selection—pre test—manipulation ---post test Random selection—manipulation--- post test Manipulation­­­­post test Pre test­­­ post test Post test Pre experimental design qusai experimental design pre test when you measure the dependent variable before the manipulation post test measure after the treatment is given Internal Validity internal validity is a property of scientific studies which reflects the extent to which a causal conclusion based on a study is warranted. Such warrant is constituted by the extent to which a study minimizes systematic error (or 'bias'). External validity is the validity of generalized (causal) inferences in scientific studies, usually based on experiments as experimentalvalidity. In other words, it is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people. For example, inferences based on comparative psychotherapy studies often employ specific samples (e.g. volunteers, highly depressed, no comorbidity Maturation Change happens due to time process not manipulation -happens in longitudinal studies history when an outside event happens and it effcts your outside variable outside events is les of an issue if its both groups -e.g rainy day affects depression mortality; participants stop participating because of death or have moved away testing effect If the respondent becomes sensitive to the expected outcome measure, performance is impacted Double blind experiment Double-Blind Experiment Researchers themselves may affect the outcome by unintentionally inserting bias. If the researcher has some pre-conceived outcome notion, then this mind-set could influence observations In a double-blind, neither the researcher or subjects know which is the experimental or control group Example: roadside sobriety check Didn=t know which drivers were intoxicated Effects of training program un-contaminated The Effect of Enforcement on Merchant Compliance with the Minimum Legal Drinking Age Law Evaluation research  is used to determine the impact of a social intervention. A social intervention is an action  taken within a social context designed to produce an intended result. Evaluation research  thus analyzes the impact of a particular program on a certain social problem the program  is trying to solve. Needs assessment studies[edit] Particular studies directed to determine the existence and extent of problems, usually  pertaining to a specific population. Cost­benefit studies[edit] Studies that decide whether the results of a program justify the expense. The cost could  have been financial or non­financial. Monitoring studies[edit] Studies that provide a steady flow of information about a topic of interest. These studies  are usually conducted over an extended period of time. In some cases, monitoring studies  require incremental interventions, meaning the results may change slightly as monitoring  methods alter and changes within the topic being studied are made. Common monitoring  studies focus on crime rates or epidemic outbreaks. Problems with evaluation research Researchers who utilize evaluation research must contend with numerous problems. They  may experience difficulty ensuring subjects’ full cooperation. Additionally, they may  have trouble finding willing participants, as research and participation in it is a priority  for few. Ethics  Like other forms of social research, evaluation research must take into account ethical  considerations. As mentioned earlier, sometimes evaluation research studies may require  the split of subjects into experimental and control groups. When considering  controversial topics, such as sex education programs, it can be the evaluation research  itself that raises ethical problems. In this case, the following question might be raised: is  it ethically sound to expose only the experimental group to sex education programs? TYPICAL SURVEY INTERVIEW VS    TYPICAL    QUALITATIVE INTERVIEW 1. Clear beginning and end                                      1.  Beginning and end                                                                                              lack clarity               2. Standard questions, same sequence                 2.  Order of questions       tailored to for all respondents                                  specific focus         3. Interviewer appears neutral                               3.  Interviewer more                                                                                             actively Involved 4. Interview asks, respondent answers                4.  Conversational­        Interviewer questions                                                more interviewer                                                                                                      questions                                                        5. One respondent                                                    5.  With others / in a                                                                                                      group 6. Business like format – professional                   6.   Less formal                                                                                                    anecdotal, often                                                                                                   recorded                   7. Close ­ ended Questions                                       7. Open ended                                                                                                 questions/probing   8. Interviewer alone controls pace                        8. Interviewer and                                                                                            participant control                                                                                              pace 9. Social context of interview not very                 9. Social context noted –      important for analysis                                            important for  interpretation                                                                                             and analysis 10.  Interviewer standardizes                               10. Interviewers adjusts to        communication framework                                     participants’ norms and                                                                                             language pattern       9 different types of question that may be used in an interview situation. 1. Introd
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