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WRIT 2003- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 42 pages long!)


Department
Writing
Course Code
WRIT 2003
Professor
John Spencer
Study Guide
Final

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York
WRIT 2003
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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LECTURE 2 SEPTEMBER 20, 2017
Language has allowed humans to do more, to think more.
It was only when humans began using language that they slowly became knowledgeable.
Evolution of Human Communication
1. Human language, unlike other species’ language, has transferred meanings. We can
expand into abstract thinking through language beyond the present world.
2. Animals can only make utterances about one thing and only in the present. Humans can
use language to refer to events that happened in the past, present and will happen in the
future
3. Animals emit one sounds out of time. They lack syntax. Humans can refer to other
language within the same language structure.
Language is Uniquely Human
What are some functions of language for humans?
Instrumental (meeting material needs ex.: food, shelter)
Regulatory (laws)
Interactional (relationships)
Personal (ability to individually express ourselves)
Heuristic (education)
Imaginative (creative purposes)
Representational (communicating knowledge, ideas to others)
Divertive (entertainment, humour)
Contractual (legal, business)
Historical
The Three Theories of Language
Language is social and individual. Language is socially constructed. For example varies
on the community you grew up in. It is individual because we have different ways of
interpreting.
1. Prescriptivism:
-argues for a single system of language based on an authorized collection of
definitions and rules
-everyone can and should learn this normative system
-history shows individuals had to give up their native language and learn English
that the elite introduced
2. Psycholinguistic:
-Intrapersonal
-language is seen as an instrument for individual human use
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-the individual vernacular (the natural language we learned from childhood)
language that all humans learn is seen as the source of all language
-despite minor differences in pronunciation/spelling it is a more healthy way to
learn. Instead of asking to give up the vernacular language, we should build from
the vernacular language we all naturally have. Treat each student as an individual
user/learner
3. Sociolinguistic:
- Interpersonal
-the study of language in its social setting as part of a larger communicative
system
-language cannot be separated from context (context change will cause for
language change)
-language acts are social processes used to establish, structure and maintain
social relationships
-we know what our role is, we know what the situation is. We learn all the roles
(student, family member, when to speak and when to listen, gender roles). We
are learning how to behave not the language
The Three Language Acts
1. The Brain:
-Language and the Brain
2. The Brain’s model of the world
3. New Worlds
Speaking, Listening,
Writing, Reading
Thinking
How Do Written and Spoken Language Differ?
1. Learning
2. Grammar & Syntax
3. Audience
4. Planning
5. Permanence
6. Memory
7. Text Content
8. Speed
9. Norma
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