Evolution: any change in inherited traits of a pop. that occurs one generation to the next (change in allele frequency) Convergent evolution: evolution of analogous (similar) features in distantly related groups. Analogous traits arise when group adapts to similar environments in similar ways (does not give info on ancestry) Fossil record: provides evidence of extinction, origin of new groups, and changes within groups over time (oldest know called stromatolites) Biogeography: study of the geographic distribution of species. Endemic species: species that are not found anywhere else in the world ex: islands have endemic species that are similar to species on nearest. Direct observations: scientists have documented evolutionary change in studies. Micro evolution: a change in allele frequencies in a population over generations. 1. caused by natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and migration/mutation. Macro evolution: evolutionary change above the species level.