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COMPLETE Personality Theories Notes: Part 11 -- got a 4.0 in the course!

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Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
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Chapter 5 Reading Notes- Biology Aspects of Personality
*Direct Genetic Effects
-Natural Selection and Functionalism
natural selection: process by which certain adaptive characteristics emerge over generations
attention drawn to function of a characteristic
evolutionary personality theory: an area of study applying biological evolutionary theory to human
differences in personality that are adaptive and emerge over generations ad there are certain tendencies
that are better fit and link with survival in general
-Angelman Syndrome: Genes and Personality
excessively happy but suffer mental retardation, sleep very little, walk with jerky movement
biological disorder caused by a defect on chromosome 15
genes affect development including structural development and physiological development
Williams Syndrome
Excessively social personality and limited spatial and intellectual ability
Missing 2 dozen genes on chromosome 7
-Behavioral Genomics
study of how genes affect behavior
*Genetic Effects through Temperament
temperament: stable individual differences in emotional reactivity
-Activity, Emotionality, Sociability, Impulsivity
4 basic aspects of temperament: activity, emotionality, sociability, impulsive/aggressive
-Eysenck’s Model of Nervous System Temperament
ties the notions of introversion-extroversion to central nervous system
extroverts have a relatively low level of brain arousal and seek stimulation
introverts thought to have a higher level of cns arousal and shy away from stimulating social environments
Eyesenck points to the part of the brain known as ascending reticular activating system
Many problems in trying to test a nervous system based theory of temperament
1)difficult to define and measure definition of “arousal”
2) many problems arise from fact that the human body is a system that attempts to
maintain equilibrium
Introverts are slower to habituate to sensory stimuli
--Approach and Inhibition: Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory
behavioral inhibition system: system provides the orienting response to novel situations and also responds
to things that are punishing
if this system is sensitive, then prone to anxiety, always alert
behavioral activation system: regulates response to rewards
if this system is overly active then impulsive and constantly seeking rewards
-Sensation Seeking and Addiction-Proneness
sensation seeking: tendency to seek out highly stimulating activities and novelty
Zuckerman’s theory proposes that sensation seekers may have a low level of natural activation and seek
arousal from the environment
neurotransmitters: chemical used by nerves to communicate
neurotransmitter dopamine there are genetic differences in availibilty and regulation
may indicate cocaine use
serotonin also related to impulsivity
prozac: a drug that blocks reabsorption of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain and thius elevates
moods and alters emotional reaction patterns
differences in hemispheric activity: level of activity within one cerebral hemisphere
*Twins as a Source of Data
-Sir Francis Galton
began the study of genetic influences on personality
drew family trees of eminent people and seemed to run in fmailiies. Today would be considered a racist.
Began the eugenics movement: encouraged preserving of purifying the gene pool of elite in order to
improve human blood lines
-Minnesota Twin Study
Jack raised outside Europe by Jew father and Oskar raised in Germany by his Catholic maternal
Both absetminded, like spicy foods, domineering/angry personality
Why do identical twins have such similar personalities?

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Chapter 5 Reading Notes­ Biology Aspects of Personality *Direct Genetic Effects ­Natural Selection and Functionalism natural selection: process by which certain adaptive characteristics emerge over generations attention drawn to function of a characteristic evolutionary personality theory: an area of study applying biological evolutionary theory to human  personality differences in personality that are adaptive and emerge over generations ad there are certain tendencies  that are better fit and link with survival in general ­Angelman Syndrome: Genes and Personality excessively happy but suffer mental retardation, sleep very little, walk with jerky movement biological disorder caused by a defect on chromosome 15 genes affect development including structural development and physiological development Williams Syndrome Excessively social personality and limited spatial and intellectual ability Missing 2 dozen genes on chromosome 7 ­Behavioral Genomics study of how genes affect behavior *Genetic Effects through Temperament temperament: stable individual differences in emotional reactivity ­Activity, Emotionality, Sociability, Impulsivity 4 basic aspects of temperament: activity, emotionality, sociability, impulsive/aggressive ­Eysenck’s Model of Nervous System Temperament ties the notions of introversion­extroversion to central nervous system extroverts have a relatively low level of brain arousal and seek stimulation  introverts thought to have a higher level of cns arousal and shy away from stimulating social environments Eyesenck points to the part of the brain known as ascending reticular activating system  Many problems in trying to test a nervous system based theory of temperament 1)difficult to define and measure definition of “arousal” 2) many problems arise from fact that the human body is a system that attempts to  maintain equilibrium Introverts are slower to habituate to sensory stimuli  ­­Approach and Inhibition: Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory behavioral inhibition system: system provides the orienting response to novel situations and also responds  to things that are punishing if this system is sensitive, then prone to anxiety, always alert behavioral activation system: regulates response to rewards if this system is overly active then impulsive and constantly seeking rewards ­Sensation Seeking and Addiction­Proneness sensation seeking: tendency to seek out highly stimulating activities and novelty Zuckerman’s theory proposes that sensation seekers may have a low level of natural activation and seek  arousal from the environment neurotransmitters: chemical used by nerves to communicate neurotransmitter dopamine there are genetic differences in availibilty and regulation may indicate cocaine use s
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