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COMPLETE Democracy, Rights & Empire I Notes: Part 4 - got 90% in the course!

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HIST 1019
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History Notes 10/10/12 Intro to the Dutch During civil war for independence against the Spanish Empire 1572-1648  Dutch built a global market economy & a new modern state and culture  Both helped them create a middle class society Political background that lead to the war:  Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (1516-1555) governed LOOSLEY the low countries the Netherlands, (Holland, Amsterdam, Belgium…17 provinces constituted the low countries) …all were a part of the Holy Roman Empire  Governed loosely b/c had trouble holding onto other parts like Germany, and trouble at home  Allowed the states a representative body made up of a deputy from each of the low 17 countries  Can’t make laws BUT…  Empowered to levy taxes & provide subsidies that the government allowed  Charles allowed this even though it meant a lessening of his power, played it reasonably well:  He kept PEACE in that area  HOWEVER, his son, Phillip II did not like playing the game  Like his father, Phillip was short of money, he had enormous expenses…nearly all he could meet by using Spanish silver, but we saw that didn’t really work first time, SO  Wasn’t willing to negotiate (unlike his father)  1567 sent Duke of Alva to the low countries to IMPOSE A TAX  Duke came with a 15,000 army just in case there was any problem with his demand  In addition to the tax, Duke was to assist (to EXECUTE) those found not to be Catholic (area that Charles didn’t have demand in)  Phillip sought to crush Protestantism  In northern Netherlands, CALVANISM took route (much more aggressive that Lutherans)  Calvins said MUST create churches even if it is illegal  Calvinists took Phillip & his army as a dare…thought “we will prevail” AKA…  Phillip took a relatively quiet, willing population (under his father) and turned them into rebels  Phillip has stripped them of their ancient right to negotiate about taxes SO…  1572 BANNER OF REBELLION is raised by William of Orange (Catholic who married a Lutheran) precisely because Phillip had stripped them of their ancient rights  savage fight…80 year route to independence  at one point Alva randomly chooses a village and executes every single man, woman and child in the village o strategy of this? To strike fear in them o people weren’t afraid, response was to fight  brought Spanish troops to the Netherlands o In the south, in Belgium, Spanish troops struck at Antwerp (the economic center of Europe) …Spanish troops sacked/destroyed Antwerp  While they fought…BUILT A GLOBAL TRADE NETWORK …Here are the steps the DUTCH took:  Begin by increasing amount of arable land…not easy because doing this in the Netherlands means pushing back the ocean  1572-1648 Dutch increase amount of arable land in Netherlands by 25% (unbelievable to do this)  work necessary to build the drains & dikes to push back the ocean was financed by hundreds of investors (** create arable land is a manifestation of nationalism like we have never seen
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