On the heels of the AngloDutch wars: Moving on to
England, the victor.
The 15,16, and 17 century.
England becomes powerful in the wool business
• In 15 century, England ranked 6 among European powers. (Near the bottom).
• Population of 4million
• France, Italy, and Spain (cracking the double digits 10, 15, 12million)
• England had a resource to enhance its power. WOOL
o Wool. The maneating sheep in Utopia.
Noblemen and owners of land getting greedy with income.
Must enclose all land to directly harm society, because being lazy
wasn’t apparently good enough.
They tear down towns to make room for sheep!!!! People are being
• Hundreds of small farmers displaced
• Little guy getting edged out by the big guy ▯modern
OLIGOPILY – in which the few rich own all.
o Allowed England to become a player in global trade network.
o Trade wool for wine in Bordeaux
o Dutch interested in wool, and Spanish (textiles)
o First half of 16 century increased export of wool by 170%.
o Collapse of Italian wool market – less wool from Italy to Germany.
England met demand
Pushed into continent through Antwerp into Germany.
o Within the next several decades, England demonstrates that it is not just
developing wool, but woolen cloth – textiles.
o By 1670: 80% of England’s exports is wool. Only 6% is raw. 74% = cloth.
o England creating a modern economy rather than just sell raw materials.
• Honning in on London
o Port city easy access to markets.
o Gave birth to secondary port cities (Bristol)
• Atlantic city of Bristol (@ center of East to West transformation) wool for wine.
o Growing and prosperous port city
o Bristol merchants, like London merchants, were tied to the continent by
the wool for wine dealings.
o Bristol wool merchants (raw only) were selling to Bordeaux for wine.
o Provided steady income for a port town like Bristol.
o Then, sadly, at 1453 (end of 100 years war), England loses claim to the
France territory around Bordeaux.
London merchants adjusted Bristol merchant’s W4W was in decline.
(Trade pre18 century conducted on behalf of personal
relationships > connections. You know a guy in Bordeaux to loan
money to promote trade).
After 1453, Bristol plunges into recession because W4W trade is
no longer vibrant. (Dropped 40%)
With less trade comes higher unemployment/ underemployment
• Ripple effect gets mercha