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Democracy, Rights & Empire I [COMPLETE NOTES Part 11] -- got a 4.0 in the course

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1019
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
England is not interested in change. They want stasis. Locke legitimized and rationalized money/capitalism through his philosophy of a natural  state and whatnot. From fear of those without taking from those with  ▯civil government  formed. Protection of property has 2 meanings • Life and liberty • And actual property protection. ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Look at notes from last time­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Locke said that what made this new government possible to give its commitment to  protecting life, liberty, and property was the contract between the government and the  people: • Forfeit some liberty for government protection of life, liberty, and property. o This contractual obligation between Crown and Colonists was eroding. o Crown appears to be taking over. o American belief of this small conspiratorial group within the government  (England) was fueled by a lack of modern perspective.   The shift of power from the Crown to the Parliament was not seen  in the colonies. o Armed with radical Whig conspiracy theory, Americans sought to  revolutionize. Jefferson enumerated wrongs of the English government to mobilize America. • Taxation sans representation Americans believed that the colonial electoral government (within Assembly or  House of Burgesses) meant that colonial govts were like republics. • Pre­revolution, they believed that their governments were republican. • To sustain those republican governments, Americans had 60­70% suffrage. • Americans believed English conspiracy would corrupt Americans by enslaving  Americans and enticing them with local, menial offices.  • Free republican society needs 3 things theoretically: 1. Hardwork 2. Virtue (selflessness) 3. property  • Virtue and property under attack from England. So they make a revolution and ultimately defeat greatest military power in the  world, laying claim to independence and freedom. • Wartime experience of America was a reality check.  o We are not selfless, willing to always help others. o Americans are no more virtuous than anyone else o Merchants were only too happy to build up the government for their profit.  Driven by the idea of accumulating wealth and property. • Given this reality, the question is raised: What do we do now?????!?!?!?!?!?!?!? o We’ve won our freedom, now what? o How do we preserve liberty/freedom and protect property, knowing that  we are not virtuous or selfless. o A myriad of solutions arose: 1. John Adams’ (who wrote the Constitution?) – Too STATIC a. Took as his model the pyramid scheme of balancing liberty  and power. b. But we had no king, no aristocracy c. Therefore, we will have an upper house (Senate) to  represent property (wealthy people) and a lower house  (House of Representatives) that represent the (poor) people.  d. Eh? Good? No. It didn’t grasp the reality of new America,  whose goal it was to accumulate wealth. e. Why?  ▯Too concerned with stasis i. America is much more malleable than English  society. 2. 1788 James Madison solved it at Constitutional Convention. –  Recognized the reality of dynamisms.  a. A growing number of Americans were urban. i. Wealth/chances to succeed were in cities. ii. To protect liberty, we must grab hold of this new  dynamic structure.  b. Federalist Papers #10 (written during formation of  Constitution) i. Aimed at New York (on the cusp  ▯ratify  constitution, please).   ii. Most frequently occurring word = energy. iii. Argument:  1. What characterizes a modern society are  factions, not static groups like the 
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