England is not interested in change. They want stasis.
Locke legitimized and rationalized money/capitalism through his philosophy of a natural
state and whatnot. From fear of those without taking from those with ▯civil government
Protection of property has 2 meanings
• Life and liberty
• And actual property protection.
Look at notes from last time
Locke said that what made this new government possible to give its commitment to
protecting life, liberty, and property was the contract between the government and the
• Forfeit some liberty for government protection of life, liberty, and property.
o This contractual obligation between Crown and Colonists was eroding.
o Crown appears to be taking over.
o American belief of this small conspiratorial group within the government
(England) was fueled by a lack of modern perspective.
The shift of power from the Crown to the Parliament was not seen
in the colonies.
o Armed with radical Whig conspiracy theory, Americans sought to
Jefferson enumerated wrongs of the English government to mobilize America.
• Taxation sans representation
Americans believed that the colonial electoral government (within Assembly or
House of Burgesses) meant that colonial govts were like republics.
• Prerevolution, they believed that their governments were republican.
• To sustain those republican governments, Americans had 6070% suffrage.
• Americans believed English conspiracy would corrupt Americans by enslaving
Americans and enticing them with local, menial offices.
• Free republican society needs 3 things theoretically:
2. Virtue (selflessness)
• Virtue and property under attack from England.
So they make a revolution and ultimately defeat greatest military power in the
world, laying claim to independence and freedom.
• Wartime experience of America was a reality check.
o We are not selfless, willing to always help others.
o Americans are no more virtuous than anyone else
o Merchants were only too happy to build up the government for their profit.
Driven by the idea of accumulating wealth and property. • Given this reality, the question is raised: What do we do now?????!?!?!?!?!?!?!?
o We’ve won our freedom, now what?
o How do we preserve liberty/freedom and protect property, knowing that
we are not virtuous or selfless.
o A myriad of solutions arose:
1. John Adams’ (who wrote the Constitution?) – Too STATIC
a. Took as his model the pyramid scheme of balancing liberty
b. But we had no king, no aristocracy
c. Therefore, we will have an upper house (Senate) to
represent property (wealthy people) and a lower house
(House of Representatives) that represent the (poor) people.
d. Eh? Good? No. It didn’t grasp the reality of new America,
whose goal it was to accumulate wealth.
e. Why? ▯Too concerned with stasis
i. America is much more malleable than English
2. 1788 James Madison solved it at Constitutional Convention. –
Recognized the reality of dynamisms.
a. A growing number of Americans were urban.
i. Wealth/chances to succeed were in cities.
ii. To protect liberty, we must grab hold of this new
b. Federalist Papers #10 (written during formation of
i. Aimed at New York (on the cusp ▯ratify
ii. Most frequently occurring word = energy.
1. What characterizes a modern society are
factions, not static groups like the