Study Guides (248,276)
United States (123,307)
Boston College (3,492)
History (1,004)
HIST 1082 (15)
All (14)

COMPLETE Modern History II Notes: Part 12 -- got 92% in the course!

6 Pages
Unlock Document

HIST 1082
All Professors

Enlightenment Ideology and Social Inequality 11/30/12 • Systems of global trade expanding o Spain and Portugal leading in 1600s  England, Netherlands, and France started expanding in 1700s • Acquiring land in North and South America o Challenging Spanish control of islands of the Caribbean • England occupied nominally Spanish island of Barbados o Seized Jamaica from Spanish 1665 • France did the same and founded the island of Saint-Domingue (Haiti) • By mid-17 century, spain was in economic collapse o Inflation of silver o Major cause was warfare  Funding wars in Europe  Worst of all these wars was Thirty Years War (1618-1648) • Combined emotions of wars of religion with volatile politics of roman empire and Chinese states o Last of the European wars of religion • Had far reaching consequences for development of warfare, power balance in Europe, and contributing factor to the enlightenment • Triggering event of 30 years war = Defenestration of Prague o Someone got thrown out of window at Prague o Opening incedent in revolt of Bohemia (Czech republic) against holy roman empire  Bohemia was under rule of roman empire • People were Protestants but king named an ultra-catholic as heir to his thrown o Protestants seized 2 catholic administrators and threw them out of palace where they were meeting  Administrators seemed to survive o Local act of revolt started war that sucked in powerful countries and spawned new wars on the side  Sweden and Denmark = Protestant and drew Spain into war because they supported Catholics • Spanish involvement meant that Dutch got sucked into conflict o Also fighting in Asia and Brazil o Massive, long, multi-sided conflict that was totally devastating for most parts of Europe  More devastating than WWII  larger percentage of population affected • 8 million people died and most of them were civilians o Many countries broke down in the strain of the fighting • Cost of 30 Years war was unprecedented o Considered first modern war  Typically fought between small armies commanded and staffed by aristocratic knights • Focused on sieges rather than open battles  30 years war inaugurated era of vast armies armed with guns facing off in battlefields and invading/moving/living within civilian towns o Firearm technology starting to become viable o Armies staffed with mercenaries  Warriors who fought for profit • European military infrastructure could not support these armies o Couldn’t always pay armies, leading soldiers to plunder towns • War finally ended because Europe lost its ability to fight o Peach of Westphalia  Granted Netherlands independence from Spain  Rulers maintain right to declare official religion of their territories • Religious minorities allowed to worship quietly in how they wanted to worship o Grudgingly cohabited • Far reaching ramafications = gradual emergence of new ideas of religious tolerance o 30 years war weakened spain and Portugal on world stage  Maintained majority of previous empires but no longer had the money to protect • England, Netherlands, and france who began to encroach as their land and who were leading European powers • Mercantilism = held that the world’s total possible wealth was fixed o Entirety of world’s wealth was like a pie with no refills  Each European state wanted biggest piece of pie • No European states at all cared if other states got fair share of pie o To axquire larger share of global wealth was colonies and trade  Mother countries only would benefit from their colonies, no other countries • Controlled trade through chartered companies o Government owned and backed  Hudson’s Bay compay controlled trade around English colonies to compete with French fur trading system
More Less

Related notes for HIST 1082

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.