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[HIST 1094] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (59 pages long)


Department
History
Course Code
HIST1094
Professor
Peter Berard
Study Guide
Midterm

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BC
HIST 1094
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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9.28.16 Abolition
Slavery in the Mid-19th Century
oBy the 1820s:
Haiti and much of Spanish Latin America had banned slavery
Slavery was still practiced in the southern US, the British and Spanish Caribbean
possessions, and Brazil
oExample of Haiti posed dilemma to slave owners: suppressing slaves could avoid
rebellion, or it could lead to it
The Rise of the Abolitionist Movement
oBritish Quakers found Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade in 1787
oLed by orator and parliamentarian William Wilberforce
oWars of the French Revolution slowed growth of reform groups
oSlave trade was seen as a nice inflow of cash to finance Britain’s war against France
oUltimately, Britain bans slave trade in 1807—partially for moral reasons, partially for
practical (economic adjustment, excuse for naval expansion)
Gave people reform they wanted without touching British institutions
Haiti shaped conversation about slavery
Thought that it might not be worth the cost of slave rebellions to have
slavesless expensive to make them free and have peace (more-or-less)
Abolitionsim and Haiti
oHaiti represented “worst case scenario” to whites about what could gappen if slaces act
on their won
oHaitian President Jean-Pierre Boyer used navy to interdict slave trade, became symbol
of militant antislavery
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Popular Abolitionism and Religion, 1820s-1830s
oAbolitionism spreads among working classes in Britain (and elsewhere) beginning in the
1820s
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oInfluenced by liberalism but even more by religion—especially Methodism (begin in the
late 18th century)
Factory owners found those who had converted to Methodism/Baptist/etc.
were less likely to get involved in what is considered poor behavior (factory
politics)
oMethodism and other religious groups were often the only social structure in factory
towns or on frontier
oMethodism wasn’t revolutionary, but it had an emphasis on social reform-prohibition,
adult education, and eventually abolitionism
oMethodism and similar evangelical forms spread among slaves and free blacks
The end of Slavery in the British Empire, 1830-1833
oThe Baptist War broke out in Jamaica (Britain’s main slave colony) in 1831
oLed by slave preacher Samuel Sharpe, it originally wasn’t a war but a peaceful strike
oEven after strike ended, planters killed over 500 strikers, Sharpe included
oParliament passed Abolition of Slavery Act, 1833
oBritish authorities also passed apprenticeship laws, which made all freed slaves labor in
workhouses for a period of a year or more
Brits thought anyone who was poor was lazy, sent them to workhousesdid this
to blacks
oResult: British West Indies stayed in British Empire with harshly controlled (but
technically free) workforce
Slavery in the US, mid-19th century
oUS increasingly divided between slave and free states after Mexican War
oMany whites, both North and South, saw coexistence between free whites and blacks as
impossible
oAbolitionists seen as threat to public order: Underground Railroad, which smuggled
slaves to freedom, was seen as a network of theft; slave rebellions (like that of Nat
Turner in 1831), were bloody and their repressions more so
oMany American whites looked to alternatives to abolition or civil war to solve racial
divide
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