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Modern History II Midterm Essay Outlines.docx

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HIST 1094
Steve Schauer

Modern History II Midterm Essay Outlines 1. Causes of the French Revolution a. Rigidity of theAncien Regime i. Only those who were born into the throne were considered nobility ii. There was a very strict class structure and no real way to move up in class iii. The Estates General system was unfair 1. The third estate received less of a vote in political matters even though it was made up of 80% of the population 2. Since the first and second estate usually voted together, there was no way that the third would have an influence in the vote b. Influence from the American Revolution i. TheAmerican Revolution was successful in putting Enlightenment ideas into politics, such as equality and individual freedom ii. French troops who were fighting on theAmericans side had a lot of contact with American soldiers and brought back their radical ideas to France after the war c. Economic Instability i. Before theAmerican revolution, Louis XV was bringing France further and further into debt through his purchases of luxuries, such as Versailles ii. When Louis XVI tried to raise taxes, he was blocked by parliament because the nobility were mad they were being taxed more iii. France sent a lot of financial and military aid toAmerica in theAmerican revolution, but after the war they did not receive a lot in return from the Treaty of Paris and the British sunk the main French naval fleet iv. Citizens were mad at the monarchy for spending so much on theAmerican Revolution after already piling up debt in earlier years, which led to unrest v. Nobles and clergy were exempt from taxes, which caused a lot of resentment from the Third Estate, who made up most of the population d. The Enlightenment i. Rationalism became popular and people saw that the political and judicial systems in France could be improved ii. Belief in natural law that says that man has natural rights, and the people of France wanted the rights that they deserved iii. People became opposed to the church’s control over their lives and the tithe that they had to pay out of their own wages while the clergy paid nothing iv. Improved literacy and education fostered the spread of ideas v. Thought sharing in coffee houses and salons was popular and helped the spread of radical ideas e. Rising Population and 1788 Famine i. In 1788 there were poor harvests that led to widespread starvation among the peasants ii. With the beginning of industrialization, more and more people were moving into the cities and they were being overcrowded iii. The close proximity of people in the cities together promoted the spread of radical revolutionary ideas 2. Causes and Effects of the Industrial Revolution a. Causes i. The Enlightenment 1. Caused people to take interest in science, which further led to the development of machinery like the printing press or the cotton gin ii. More machinery = more farmers moving to factory work 1. This created a lot of cheap labor because there were so many people looking for work 2. Made goods available in larger quantities at lower prices because their production was much more efficient iii. Liberal economic policies and communication fueled markets 1. Laissez-faire economics let businesses run without interference and regulation, which increased production and financial transactions 2. More countries had faster ships and railroads, so shipping goods for foreign trade was easier than ever before a. This also made it cheaper to ship goods b. Led to exchange of raw materials for final goods and facilitated trade patterns between countries b. Effects i. Cities were growing in size and rural areas became less populated 1. There was a lot less space in cities for all the people that were migrating there, so there was increased poverty and homelessness 2. Cities became overcrowded and dirty and people were subject to starvation because there were less farmers and more people doing factory work 3. Housing conditions were not satisfactory and there were not many regulations for landlords on the safety of buildings 4. Close proximity of people encouraged the spread of radical ideas and discontent between workers, which led to unrest and disgruntled employees ii.Exploited labor 1. Women and children worked long hours in the factory for a very small wage 2. Factories were not regulated and were not healthy environments for anyone, leading to shorter life expectancies of factory workers and many workplace injuries 3. Workdays were long because the factories were inside and did not rely on sunlight for business hours iii.New technologies 1. Gas and electric lighting were safer and less work 2. Improved healthcare because of more scientific knowledge 3. Railways and subways made mass transportation much easier 4. Education improved and printing presses made the circulation of news much quicker 5. Machines made it easier for workers and required less physical labor iv. Shifts in social structure 1. Changes in class structure and close proximity of people to each other revealed obvious inequalities between laborers and their employers 2. Luddites were artisans and textile workers who lost employment because their work could be replicated by machines that made it quicker and cheaper a. Caused some uprisings, where they smashed the machines and destroyed factories, but they faced a mass trial in Britain v. Environmental effects 1. Pollution was let into the air and to water ways 2. For example, the Thames river in France was brown and gross because factories let their pollution seep into it 3. Slaughtered animals that people would eat would be left in the street 3. Causes for the Russian Revolution a. Economic issues i. The nobility and the clergy owned most of the agricultural land but did not farm there, so the peasants did not have much land to farm on and they had very primitive methods of sowing their crops ii. There were huge sums of money the peasants had to pay for rent to their landlords iii. The Russian government made no reforms to address these issues and let the peasants live in unhappiness iv. Involvement in WWI led to massive inflation v. In 1861, the government allowed Emancipation of the Peasantry, and they were allowed to buy land by taking out loans with very high interest rates which caused major debt b. Industrialization i. Caused miserable working conditions with 12 to 14 hour days and low wages ii. It was a crime to form unions between workers iii. People lived in poverty in the overcrowded cities that fostered disease and the spread of radical ideas iv. In St. Petersburg, there was a heighted awareness between the rich and the poor and sometimes they would live on different floors of the same building c. Political unrest i. People were very unhappy with the Tsar Nicholas II 1. There was a parliamentary system called the Duma, but they could be ignored by the Tsar so they did not have much political say 2. Nicholas II took control of the military in WWI and left his wifeAlexandra in charge with her friend Rasputin, a magical healer who discredited the regime d. Finally, revolution i. 1905 – troops open fire on a peaceful demonstration of workers, causing unrest ii. All of the unrest led to a workers strike in 1917 during a terrible winter, and there were revolts in the streets. iii.Soldiers were ordered to stop the revolts, but instead soldiers turned and attacked the government iv. Nicholas II surrendered the throne and the Duma took over and set up a provisional government 4. Motivations and Justifications for Imperial Expansion a. Economic i. Since industrialization caused production of goods to increase, the amount of goods was piling up in European countries. They needed more places that they could export their goods to ii. They also were running out of raw materials, and manyAfrican andAsian countries were abundant with resources iii.Exploiting the indigenous populations as slaves provided Europeans with more cheap and forced labor so they could increase their own personal wealth iv. Example: King Leopold II exploited the people of the Congo and abused them to get money for royal palaces and gifts for his friends and family b. Political i. Industrialization put most of the major European countries on an even playing field 1. While Britain had the upper hand as the most developed country for many years, industrialization made Germany, Italy, and France into European powers too ii. Leaders believed that the only way to expand their power was to look to other areas that had not yet been colonized to prevent war in Europe by trying to take land from other European countries iii.Urgency for finding other places to colonize because other countries were doing it and there was increased competition for areas to colonize c. Religious i. Many countries sent over Christian missionaries to convert natives to Catholicism 1. AFrench politician, Lugard, advocated for people to teachAfricans medical practices as a way to get into their homes and convert them to Christianity ii. Western education was left in the hands of Catholic and Protestant missionaries, so it was mainly based around converting natives d. Nationalistic and cultural i. Europeans believed that they were superior to all other races ii. They believed it was their duty to civilize the “backwards” nations iii.Cecil Rhodes argued that the British were the finest race on the planet and they should populate wherever they can and make all other races subservient to them. He thought the whole world should be under British rules 5. Mechanisms of Imperial Control a. Indirect rule i. Mainly used by the British, who would go into countries and tell local leaders exactly what they were to do, such as collect taxes or control the economy 1. If the leaders didn’t listen, the British would just take them out of power and put someone who would listen to them in power 2. The heads of these lit
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